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Windows server side Interview Question & Answers

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Windows server side Interview Question & Answers

UNC Universal Naming Convention

\\servername\shared name (It is used to access the shared folder)

MAC Media Access Control

PDC Primary Domain Controllers

BDC Backup Domain Controllers

SMP Symmetric Multi Processors

AMP Asymmetric Multi Processing

EFS Encrypted File System

FAT File Allocation Table

HCL Hardware Compatibility List

IIS Internet Information Service

LSA Local Security Authority

MMC Microsoft Management Console

OU Organizational Unit

RAS Remote Access Service

RDP Remote Desktop Protocol (used for Terminal Services)

RRAS Routing and Remote Access Service

SID Security Identifier

WINS Windows Internet Name Service

GUID Globally Unique identifier

IAS Internet Authentication Service

UPN User Principle Name (Username@domainname.com)

BIOS Basic Input Output System

Net BIOS Network Basic Input/Output System

ARP Address Resolution Protocol

DVD Digital Video Disk

GPO Group Policy Object (LGPO Local Group Policy Object)

IPsec Internet Protocol Security

ISP Internet Service Provider

NAT Network Address Translation

MBT Master Boot Record

USB Universal Serial Bus

POST Power On Self Test

SCSI Small Computer System Interface

SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

URL Uniform Resource Locator

RAID Redundant Array of Independent Disk

IDE Intelligent drive Electronics or Integrated Drive Electronics

FQDN Fully Qualified Domain Name (full computer name)

[computername.domainname.com]

OSPF Open Shortest Path First (these two are routing protocols)

RIP Routing Information Protocol

POP3 Post Office Protocol (used to receive the mails)

SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (Used to send the mails)

SMPS Switch Mode Power Supply

PING Packet Internet Groper

VNC Virtual Network Computing

EULA End User License Agreement

CAL Client Access License

TSCAL Terminal Services Client Access License

UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply

BIND Berkeley Internet Name Domain

PXE Pre boot eXecutable Environment

UDF Uniqueness Database file

LDAP Light weight Directory Access Protocol

ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network

VLSM Variable Length Subnet Mask

CIDR Classless Inter Domain Routing

IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol

FSMO Flexible Single Master Operations

APIPAAutomatic IP addressing

NetBEUI Net Bios Enhanced User Interface

UDP User Datagram Protocol

FTP File Transfer Protocol

Mbps Mega bits per second

Ntds.dit Nt directory services.directory information tree.

ICMP Internet Control message Protocol

IGMP Internet group Management Protocol

NNTP Network News Transfer Protocol

RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial In User service

SNMP Simple Network Management protocol

VPN Virtual Private Network

L2TP Layer2 Tunneling Protocol

PPTP Point to Point Tunneling Protocol

ADSI Active Directory Service Interfaces

SUS Software Update Service

SMS System Management Service

WUS Windows Update service

TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol

List of important port numbers

15  Netstat

21  FTP

23  Telnet

25  SMTP

42  WINS

53  DNS

67  Bootp

68  DHCP

80  HTTP

88  Kerberos

101  HOSTNAME

110  POP3

119  NNTP

123  NTP (Network time protocol)

139  NetBIOS

161  SNMP

180  RIS

389  LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)

443  HTTPS (HTTP over SSL/TLS)

520  RIP

79  FINGER

37  Time

3389  Terminal services

443 SSL (https) (http
protocol over TLS/SSL)

220  IMAP3

3268  AD Global Catalog

3269  AD Global Catalog over SSL

500  Internet Key Exchange, IKE (IPSec) (UDP 500)

diskpart.exe This command is used for disk management in Windows 2003.

nltest /dsgetdc:domainname

replacing domainname with the name of the domain that you are
trying to log on to. This

command verifies that a domain controller can be located. Nltest
is included in Support

Tools

How to synchronize manually a client computer to a domain
controller?

Windows 2000 (Win2K) and later computers in a domain should
automatically

synchronize time with a domain controller. But some times you may
get a situation to

synchronize manually.

To manually synchronize time, open a command-line window, and run

Net stop w32time

Run

w32time –update

Run

Net start w32time

Manually verify the synchronization between the client computer
and a domain

controller. Also check the System event log to ensure that the
W32Time service has not

logged additional error messages.

Properties

What are the properties of Taskbar?

We can see two tabs namely General, Advanced

What are the properties of Desktop?

The tabs that are there

Background

Screen saver

Appearance

Web

Effects

Settings

What are the properties of My computer?

The tabs that are there are

General

Network Identification

Hardware

Profile

Advanced

What are the properties of My Network places?

You will get one window, containing

Make new connection

Local Area connection

Now go to the properties of Local Area Connections

What are the properties of Internet Explorer?

What are the properties of a folder?

What are the properties of a Drive?

What are the folder options?

Double click on my computer Tools  folder options

General

View

File types

Offline files

What are the properties of folder?

What are the properties of file?

What are the print options do u get when you give a print in word?

What are the icons available in Control Panel?

Around 27 icons are available in control panel

Accessibility options, Add/Remove Hard ware, Add/Remove Programs,
Administrative

tools, Automatic updates.

Key board, mouse, printer, Phone and modem, Scanner and cameras,
Power options

System, Display, Network and dial up connections, Internet
options, folder options

Date and time, Sounds and multi media, Regional settings, Users
and passwords,

Scheduled tasks

What are the icons that don’t get delete option on the Desktop (up
to 2000 O. S.)?

My Computer

My Network Places

Recycle Bin

Note: In Windows 2003 you can delete My computer, My network places. You
can also

get back them.

Right click on Desktop Properties  Click on Desktop tab  click on customize

desktop  select the appropriate check boxes.

Even in 2003 you cannot delete Recycle bin.

Note: You can delete any thing (even Recycle bin) from the desktop
by using registry

settings in 2000/2003.

What are the properties of Recycle bin?

General

Check box for Display delete confirmation dialogue box

Check box for whether to move a deleted to Recycle bin or directly
delete

Global options (applies to all drives)

Individual Partitions (for each partition there exist one
partition)

How to configure the DNS?

Open the DNS Console

Then you will find there

DNS

Server name

Forward Lookup Zone

Reverse Lookup Zone

Note: If you have selected create automatically zones during the setup,
then it creates the

root zone and domain zone under forward lookup zone.

If no zones are there under forward lookup zone first create root
zone then create

domain zone.

How to create a zone?

Right click on forward lookup zone new zone

Active Directory Integrated

Primary

Secondary

Select any one of above.

Note: The option Active Directory Integrated Zone is available on when you
have

installed the Active Directory; if you have not installed Active Directory the option is

disabled.

Note: If you want to select a Secondary zone u should have already a
primary zone or

Active Directory Integrated zone.

DNS Name [____________________]

Give the DNS name

Note: If you r creating a root zone then just type in the name box
“.” (only dot)

Then click Next

Finish

After creating the root zone then create another zone with Domain
Name

Right click on Forward Lookup zone  New zone Active Directory Integrated

(you can choose any one) DNS Name [___]Next Finish

Creation of zone in Reverse lookup zone

Right Click on Reverse lookup zoneNew zone Type Network IdNext 

Name Finish

After this

Right Click on zone select Create associate Ptr (pointer) record Next finish

What tabs are there on properties of Domain?

General

Start of Authority (SOA)

Named servers

WINS

Zone transfers

What tabs are there on properties of sever?

Interface

Forwarders

Advanced

Root hints

Logging

Monitoring

Where to create the primary, secondary, Active Directory
Integrated zones?

If you want to create an Active Directory integrated zone, the
server must be Domain

Controller.

If you want to create the Primary DNS, you can create on Domain
Controller or Member

server. But if create on member you could not get 4 options under
the domain which are

meant for Active directory.

You can create Secondary zone on a Member Server or on a Domain
Controller. There is

no difference between them.

What are the advantages with Windows 2000 DNS?

Or

What are the features of Widows 2000 DNS?

Supports SRV (service) records

Supports Dynamic Updates

Supports IXFR (Incremental Zone Transfer)

Supports security

Explain each one of the above?

In windows 2000 Domain you need to have a DNS server to find
different

services. The SRV records identify these services.

When you enable the Dynamic updates, all the records in the zone
are

automatically created. As we add a computer to the domain, as we
add a Domain

controller to the domain the corresponding records are
automatically created. I.e., you

need to create a record in the DNS zone manually to identify those computers or services.

When an update is made in the Master it has to be replicated to
the Secondary.

Previous we used to transfer the entire zone (which is called AXFR
(entire zone

transfer)). But with Windows 2000 domain we transfer on the
records that have been

modified. This is called IXFR (Incremental Zone Transfer).

We get the security with Active Directory Integrated zone. We can
set permission

on Active Directory like who can use and who can’t use the DNS.
And also we have

Secure Dynamic updates with Active Directory Integrated zone. By
this only specified

computers only can dynamically update the records in the zone.

What are the commands do we use for DNS?

Nslookup (and all interactive mode commands)

Ipconfig /fulshdns

Ipconfig /registerdns

Note: A best strategy of using DNS in corporate network is use two DNS
servers. One is

on internal network and another one is between two firewalls. For
more security keep the

zone as secondary in the DNS server which is between firewalls.

How we make more available our DNS?

By adding more tuple servers or By windows 2000 clustering.

FAQ’s on DNS

What is the purpose of forward lookup?

It resolves the Host names (Friendly Name) to IP addresses

What is the purpose of Reverse lookup zone?

It resolves the IP addresses to Host names

What is the difference between Primary zone and Secondary zone?

Primary zone has read and write permissions, where as Secondary
zone has read only

permission.

Note: Secondary zone is used for Backup and Load balancing.

How to check whether DNS is working or not?

Type the command “nslookup” at command prompt

Then it gives the DNS server name and its IP address

What is Dynamic Updates in DNS?

Generally we need to create a host record for newly joined
computer (either client or

Member server or Domain controller). If you enable dynamic Update
option, then DNS it

self creates associated host record for newly joined computers.

How to get Dynamic Update option?

Right Click on any zone  properties  on General tab u will get Allow Dynamic

Updates? [_Yes/No/Secure Updates]

Note: Put always Dynamic Updates “YES”

Note: If it is Active Directory Integrated zone you will get above
three options.

But if it is Primary or Secondary zone you will get only “YES/NO”
(You won’t get

secure updates)

What is name Resolution?

The process of translating the name into some object or information
that the name

represents is called name resolution. A telephone book forms a
namespace in which the

names of telephone subscribers can be resolved to the phone
numbers.

What is BIND?

What are the ports numbers used for Kerberos, LDAP etc in DNS?

Additional Material

What is a zone?

A database of records is called a zone.

Also called a zone of authority, a subset of the Domain Name
System (DNS) namespace

that is managed by a name server.

What is an iterative query?

The query that has been sent to the DNS server from a Client is
called iterative query.

(i. e., iterative query is nothing but give the answer for my
question, don’t ask to contact

that person or this person or don’t say some thing else. Simply
just answer to my

question. That’s all)

What is Recursive query?

Now your DNS server requests the root level DNS server for
specific IP address. Now

DNS server says that I don’t know but I can give the address other
person who can help

you in finding IP address.

What Type of Records do you find in DNS database?

Host Record

Mail Exchange Record (MX record)

Alias

How to convert a Domain Controller to a member server?

Go to registry Hkey_local_machine systemcontolset001 control

productoptions

In that change product type from “lanmanNt” to “serverNt”

Or

Go to Registry then search for lanmanNt then change it as serverNt

Is there any possibility to have two Primary DNS zones?

No, you should not have two primary DNS zones. Why because if u
have two primary

DNS zones some clients contacts first one, some clients contacts
second one according to

their configuration in TCP/IP properties. Then you will get
problems. Actually Primary

DNS zone means Single master. i.e., master is only one that is
only one primary DNS

zone. But you can have as many as Secondary zones.

To overcome from above problem (i.e., single master problem) in
Windows 2000 we

have Active Directory Integrated zones, which are multi masters.

How to create a Secondary DNS zone?

To create a secondary zone you should have Primary DNS zone or Active
Directory

Integrated DNS zone.

You have to follow the same procedure as same as primary DNS
configuration.

But at the time selection, select Secondary zone instead of
primary zone. After that it asks

the primary DNS zone address provide that address.

Create forward lookup zone and reverse lookup zone as usual.

Then,

Right click on forward lookup zone New zone

Active Directory Integrated

Primary

Secondary

Select Secondary zone

(Note:-The option Active Directory Integrated Zone is available on when
you have

installed the Active Directory; if you have not installed Active
Directory the option is

disabled.)

Then it asks for Primary DNS zone details, provide those details
then click on

finish.

Now go to Primary or Active Directory integrated zone then right
click on zone

name  properties click on zone transfer Tab

Select allow zone Transfers

Here you can see three options.

To any server

Only to servers listed on the Name servers tab

Only to the following servers

Select anyone and give the details of secondary zone (only in case
of second and third

option).

Click on apply, then OK

Note: In zone transfers tab you can find another option Notify, this is
to automatically

notify secondary severs when the zone changes. Here also you can
select appropriate

options.

Note: In secondary zone you cannot modify any information. Every one has
read only

permission.

Whenever Primary DNS is in down click on “change” tab on general
tab of properties, to

change as primary, then it acts as primary, there you can write
permission also.

What is the default time setting in primary zone to refresh, Retry, Expire intervals for

secondary zone?

The default settings are

To Refresh interval 10 minutes

To Retry interval, 15 minutes

To Expire after 1 day

Suppose the Secondary zone is Expired then, how to solve the
problem?

First go to primary zone check primary zone is working or not.

IF primary zone is working then go to secondary zone, Right click
on zone name select

the “Transfer from Master” then it automatically contacts the
primary DNS, if any

updates are there then it takes the updates from the Primary.

How to know whether the recent changes in Primary are updated to
secondary zone

or not?

Compare the Serial Number on Start of Authority tab in both secondary on primary DNS

zone properties.

If both are same then recent updates are made to secondary zone.

If not (i.e., secondary is less then primary) click on “Transfer
from Master”

How to change form Primary to Secondary or Secondary to primary or
Active directory

integrated to secondary or primary like that (simply one type of
zone to another type of

zone)?

Go to the properties of the zone click on general tab, there you
can find the option called

Change” click on it then select appropriate option.

Then click on OK

How to pause the zone?

Go to properties of a zone click on General tab click on Pause button.

What system is used before DNS to resolve this host names?

How to know whether a DNS name is exist or not in the internet?

CBT nuggets

Iterative query

The query that has been sent to my DNS server from my computer.

Recursive query

The query that has been sent to other DNS servers to know the IP
address of a particular

server from my DNS server.

When you install a Windows 2000 DNS server, you immediately get
all of the records of

root DNS servers. So every windows 2000 DNS server installed on
Internet has pre

configured with the address of root DNS servers. So every single
DNS server in the

Internet can get root servers.

DNS requirements:

First and foremost has to support SRV records (SRV record identifies a
particular

service in a particular computer) (in windows 2000 we use SRV
records to identify

Domain controllers, identifying Global Catalogue, etc.

Second and third are not requirements but recommended.

Second is Dynamic Updates

Third one is IXFR (Incremental Zone Transfer)

Note: Most DNS servers support AXFR (i.e., Entire zone transfer)

In incremental we transfer only changes, but in AXFR we transfer
whole.

How does DNS server know the root domain server addresses?

Every DNS server that has installed on Internet has pre configured
with root DNS server

addresses.

Every single server can get to the root. So that only every DNS
server on the Internet first

contacts root DNS servers for name resolution.

Where can you find the address of root servers in the DNS server?

Open the DNS console  Right click on the domain name  drag down to properties 

click on Root hints. Here you can find different root server
addresses.

Note: When you install DNS service in a 2000 server operating system
(still you have not

configured anything on DNS server), then it starts its
functionality as caching only DNS

server.

What is caching only DNS server?

What is a forwarder?

(Open DNS console  Right click on Domain name  Click on forwarder tab)

A forwarder is server, which has more access than the present DNS
server. May be our

present DNS server is located in internal network and it cannot
resolve the Internet

names. May be it is behind a firewall or may it is using a proxy
server or NAT server to

get to the Internet. Then this server forwards the query to
another DNS server that can

resolve the Internet names.

Dynamic Host Configuration System (DHCP)

What is DHCP?

How to install DHCP?

We can install DHCP by two ways

1) While installing Operating System

While installing Operating System, It asks at Network Settings
whether u

want Typical settings or Custom Settings

Select Custom SettingsSelect Network Servicesclick on Details

Select DHCPclick on OK

2) Independently

Programs Settings Control Panel Add/Remove Programs 

Add/Remove Windows Components Select the Network ServicesClick

on properties Select DHCP OK

(During the installation it asks for CD)

Note: When you have installed DHCP a icon will appear in Administrative
Tools

(DHCP)

How to uninstall DHCP?

Programs Settings Control Panel Add/Remove Programs 

Add/Remove Windows Components Select the Network ServicesClick

on properties Deselect DHCP OK

How to open DHCP?

StartProgramsAdministrative ToolsDHCP

Or

StartRundhcpmgmt.msc

How to configure DHCP?

Open DHCP console by typing “dhcpmgmt.msc” at run prompt

Now you will find in DHCP console

DHCP

Right Click on DHCP Click on Add Server

Then you will get a window

This server

[________________] BROWSE

Select the DHCP server

OK

Now you will get

DHCP

Servername.domain.com [IP address]

Note: Some time the window comes automatically with creating the “Add
Server”. Such

cases check the IP address whether it is correct or not. If it is
wrong delete it and recreate

it.

Now you have DHCP server.

Now you have to authorize the DHCP Server to provide IP addresses
to the clients.

Who can authorize DHCP server in the entire domain?

An Enterprise administrator can only authorize DHCP server. No
other person in the

domain can authorize the DHCP server. Even if u r Administrator
without enterprise

administrator privileges you can’t authorize the DHCP server.

Note: If it is not authorized a red symbol (down red arrow) will appear,
if u authorize it

then a green up arrow will appear.

How to authorize the DHCP server?

Login with Enterprise administrator privileges.

Right Click on Servername.Domainname.com

Click on Authorize

Then it will be authorized (Indication is you will get green up
arrow)

Now you have to create scope.

Note: A scope is range of IP addresses that you want to allocate to the
clients.

How to create a scope?

Right click on servername.Domainname.com

Click on New Scope.

Click on Next.

Type Name [ ______________________]

Description [_______________________]

Note: Generally we give the name as Network ID.

Click on Next.

Start IP address [______________________]

End IP address [______________________]

(Provide the starting IP address and End IP address)

Click on Next

Note: If you want to any exclusion you can do.

Starting IP address [______________] Ending IP address
[__________]

Add

Remove

What is the default lease duration, minimum lease duration and
maximum lease

duration?

By default any system will get 8 lease days to use IP address.

Note: You can increase or decrease the Lease duration, You have assign
at least minimum

duration of 1 second and you can assign Maximum duration of 999
days 23 hours 59

minutes.

Note: If you haven’t log on for 50% of the duration continuously
the IP address will be

released.

Click Next

Now you will get a Window asking whether you want to configure the
options (DNS,

WINS, and Router etc.)

You can configure the options now itself or you can authorize
after completion of this.

Select any one then click Next.

Click Finish.

Note: If u have selected “NO” in the above window you can configure
above things

anytime like below

Click on server optionconfigure options 

Select the required ones

Enter server name, IP address

Click OK

Now you have to activate the “Scope”

Right click on Scope Click on Activate

Note: You can reserve IP address for specific Clients. Or You can
Exclude IP address

(without allocation) for future purpose.

The above things all are in server.

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

Now you have to configure Client system.

Go to Client System

Right click on My Network Places drag down to properties  Right click on Local

area connection drag down to properties  select TCP/IP  click on properties

Now you will get one window containing TCP/IP properties

In that select “assign IP address automatically” and select “assign
DNS address

automatically”

Click on “More” delete the DNS suffix if anything is there.

Click OK

Then the client takes IP address automatically from DHCP server.

The DHCP server also provides DNS, WINS, ROUTER addresses also.

Note: You must assign a static IP address for DHCP server.

(Generally in real time people will assign static IP address not
only for DHCP server but

also for all servers. Because if you assign automatic IP Address
if DHCP is down then all

servers will not function properly.)

Note: The DHCP server assigns IP address to the clients. But apart from
that it also

provides DNS address, default gateway, WINS address and so on,
which are configured

in DHCP server.

What is the protocol that is used for DHCP process?

Bootp

Why DHCP Relay Agent is used?

To extend DHCP services beyond routers (IF “bootp” is not
installed in router)

What are the commands used for DHCP?

Ipconfig

Ipconfig /all

Ipconfig /release

Ipconfig /renew

What is the process of assigning IP address by DHCP service?

There are four stages in assigning IP address to a host by DHCP
server.

1) DHCP discover

2) DHCP offer

3) DHCP request

4) DHCP Acknowledge

DHCP Discover:

When ever client has to obtain an IP address from a DHCP server it
will broadcast

a message called “DHCP discover” , which contains destination
address 255.255.255.255

and source IP address as 0.0.0.0 and its MAC address.

DHCP offer:

The DHCP server on the network will respond to DHCP discover by
sending a

DHCP offer message to the client requesting an IP address.

DHCP request:

The client after receiving offer message will send a “DHCP request”
message

asking the DHCP server to confirm the IP address it has offered to
it through DHCP offer

message.

DHCP Acknowledge:

DHCP server will respond to the “DHCP request” message by sending

acknowledge message through which it confirms the IP address to
other machine.

Note: You can also enable DHCP in work group for dynamic
allocation of IP addresses.

Configure the server operating system in work group as a DHCP then
go for client in

TCP/IP properties select obtain IP address automatically. Then the
client gets IP address

from the DHCP server.

Note: You need not to configure DNS or anything.

Using APIPA

On occasion, a network PC boots up and finds that the DHCP
server is not available.

When this happens, the PC continues to poll for a DHCP server
using different wait

periods.

The Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) service allows the
DHCP client to

automatically configure itself until the DHCP server is
available and the client can be

configured to the network. APIPA allows the DHCP client to
assign itself an IP address in

the range of 169.254.0.1 to 169.254.254.254 and a Class B subnet
mask of 255.255.0.0.

The address range that is used by APIPA is a Class B address
that Microsoft has set aside

for this purpose.

 

General Questions

What is the family of Windows 2000?

Windows 2000 Professional (Desktop Operating System)

Windows 2000 Server (Server Operating System)

Windows 2000 Advanced Server (Server Operating System)

Windows 2000 Data center Server (Server Operating System)

What is the family of Windows NT?

Windows NT workstation (Desktop)

Windows NT 4.0 server (Server)

Windows NT 4.0 Enterprise server (Server)

What is the family of Widows 2003 family?

■ Windows Server 2003, Web Edition

■ Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition

■ Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition

■ Windows Server 2003, Data center Edition

What is the Difference between Desktop and Server?

In desktop system we cannot load Active directory.

In server system we can load Active directory. So that we can
create a Domain in server,

advanced server, Data center server.

In professional there is no fault tolerance on the hard drive
(i.e., disk mirroring, RAID 5).

In server we have fault tolerance on the hard drive.

What is the difference between windows 2000 server and Windows
2000 advanced

server, Data center server?

In Windows 2000 server we don’t have Clustering, Network load
balancing.

Where as in Windows 2000 advanced server and in Data center server
we have Clustering

and Network load balancing.

In 2000-Advanced server and Data center server we have more RAM
and more

Processors.

What are the minimum and Maximum configurations for Windows
family?

Windows 2000 Operating System family

OS Name Processor RAM

(min.)

RAM

(rec.)

Free Hard

disk space

Supported

no. of Pros. RAM

Windows 2000

Professional

Pentium / 133MHz 32 MB 64 MB 650 MB

1 GB (rec.)

2 4 GB

Windows 2000

Server

Pentium / 133MHz 128 MB 256 MB Approx.1 GB

(Rec. 2 GB)

4 4 GB

Windows 2000

Advanced Server

Pentium / 133MHz 128 MB 256 MB Approx 1 GB

(Rec. 2 GB)

8 8 GB

Windows 2000

Datacenter Server

Pentium / 133MHz 128 MB 256 MB Approx 1 GB

(Rec. 2 GB)

32 64 GB

CPU Requirements for Windows
Server 2003

Specification

Windows

Server 2003,

Standard Edition

Windows

Server 2003,

Enterprise Edition

Minimum recommended

CPU speed

550 MHz 550 MHz

Number of CPUs supported 1–4 1–8

Minimum and Maximum RAM for
Windows Server 2003

RAM Specification

Windows

Server 2003,

Standard Edition

Windows

Server 2003,

Enterprise Edition

Minimum recommended RAM 256
megabytes(MB) 256 MB

Maximum RAM 4 gigabytes (GB) 32
GB

What are the differences between windows 2000 professional and
server versions?

In professional we don’t have fault tolerance (Mirroring, RAID5)
where as in all server

versions we have.

In professional we cannot load Active Directory where as in all
server versions we can.

In professional and 2000 server we don’t clustering and network
load balancing where as

in 2000 advanced server and in Data centre server we have
Clustering and NLB.

As you move from server to advanced server, advanced server to
data centre server we

get more RAM and more Processors.

What are the features of Windows 2000 professional?

Windows 2000 Professional improves the capabilities of previous
versions of Windows in

five main areas: ease of use, simplified management, increased
hardware support,

enhanced file management, and enhanced security features.

What are the features of windows 2000?

What are the Operating Systems can u upgrade to Windows 2000?

We cannot upgrade window 3.1 to windows 2000.

We can upgrade directly from windows 95/98/NT 3.51/NT 4.0 to
Windows 2000.

If we have Windows NT 3.1/NT 3.50 first we need to upgrade to
Windows NT3.51 or NT

4.0 then we can upgrade to windows 2000.

What is the primary difference between a workgroup and a domain?

A workgroup is a distributed directory maintained on each computer
within the

workgroup. A domain is a centralized directory of resources
maintained on domain

controllers and presented to the user through Active Directory
services.

What is a Stand-alone computer?

A computer that belongs to a workgroup, not a domain, is called a
stand-alone computer.

What is Domain Controller and Member server?

With Windows 2000, servers in a domain can have one of two roles:

Domain controllers, which contain matching copies of the user
accounts and other Active

Directory data in a given domain.

Member servers, which belong to a domain but do not contain a copy
of the Active

Directory data.

Member servers running Windows 2000 Server: A member server is a server
that isn’t

configured as a domain controller. A member server doesn’t store
Directory information

and can’t authenticate users. Member servers provide shared
resources such as shared

folders or printers.

Client computers running Windows 2000 Professional: Client computers run a
user’s

desktop environment and allow the user to gain access to resources
in the domain.

Can you change the Name of a Domain Controller?

You cannot change the name of a server while it is a domain
controller in windows 2000

domain. Instead, you must change it to a member or stand-alone
server, change the name,

and finally make the server a domain controller once again.

But you can change the name of a domain controller in windows 2003
Operating System.

Why do we need Multiple Domain Controllers?

If you have multiple domain controllers, it provides better
support for users than having

only one. Multiple domain controllers provide automatic backup for
user accounts and

other Active Directory data, and they work together to support
domain controller

functions (such as validating logons).

What is the structure and purpose of a directory service?

A directory service consists of a database that stores information
about network

resources, such as computer and printers, and the services that
make this information

available to users and applications.

What is Active Directory?

Active Directory is a directory service, which stores information
about network resources

such as users, groups, computes, printers, and shares. Active
Directory provides single

point for organization, control, management.

Note: In a lay man language Active Directory is some thing like Yellow Pages.

What roles does a Main Domain Controller (the first domain
controller in the entire

forest) will have by default?

By default it gets 5 roles.

Schema Master

Domain Naming Master

PDC Emulator

Relative Identifier (RID)

Infrastructure Master (IM)

Note: The above roles are called operations master roles.

What are the roles an Additional Domain controller will have by
default?

By default you cannot get any role. But if you want to assign any
role you can transfer

from master.

What are the roles a Child Main Domain Controller will have by
default?

By default it gets only three roles.

PDC Emulator

Relative Identifier (RID)

Infrastructure Master (IM)

What are the roles a Child additional Domain controller will have
by default?

By default it won’t get any role. But if want to assign you can
transfer from main child

domain controller.

Explain the activities of each role?

1) Schema Master:

It will govern the Active Directory to all the Domain Controllers
in a forest.

2) Domain Naming Master:

Maintains the unique Domain Naming System in a forest to avoid
duplication.

3) RID master:

It assigns unique ID to every user account. (Domain + RID)

4) PDC Emulator:

If PDC is upgraded to windows 2000 it will send data to BDC’s on
the network.

(Replication of user Database)

If the user password is not matching in a particular Domain, then
it will contact

PDC emulator of first Domain Controller (Master Domain controller)

5) Infrastructure Master:

Maintains the infrastructure group proper files on the master
Domain controller.

What are the roles must be on the same server?

Domain Naming Master and Global catalogue

What are the roles those must not be on the same Domain
Controller?

Infrastructure Master and Global Catalogue

Note: If you have only one domain then you won’t get any problem
even if you have both

of them in the same server.

If you have two or more domains in a forest then they shouldn’t be
in the same server.

What is Global Catalogue?

This is a database on one or more domain controllers. Each copy of
the database contains

a replica of every object in the Active Directory but with a
limited number of each

object’s attributes.

Use of Global catalogue

Contains partial replica of all objects in the entire forest

Contains universal groups

Validates user principle names (UPN) when you are creating. This
checks that any UPN

exists with this name or not in the entire forest.

How to check the above roles to which server they have assigned?

Install support tools from CD

Programssupport toolstoolscmd prompt (Go to the command prompt in this way

only)

At command prompt type “netdom query fsmo”

What is FSMO?

Flexible Single Master Operations

Note: The above five roles are called FSMO roles.

How to check which server is having Global Catalogue?

First load support tools

Run  cmd ldp

Then you will get a window there

Click on file  Select connect to  type the required server

Then you will get some information, at the bottom you can find “Global
Catalogue”

TRUE/FALSE. If TRUE is there then it is a global catalogue server.
If FALSE is there

then it is not a global catalogue server.

Note: By default the Global Catalogue service is enabled in Main
Domain controller.

And by default the Global Catalogue service is disabled in additional Domain

Controllers. If you want to transfer Global Catalogue service from
Main Domain

Controller to Additional Domain Controller, then you can transfer.

How to transfer a role from on Domain Controller to another Domain
controller?

Start  Programs  Administrative tools  Active Directory sites and
services 

Right click on Domain Name First connect to the required server by the
option

“connect to”. Then  Right click on Domain Name select Operations Masters  there

you will get 3 roles tabs. Select the required one  click on change tab  OK

How to start/stop a service from command prompt?

Go to the command prompt, type

“Net start service name” (To start a service)

Net stop service name” (To stop a service)

Ex: “net start netlogon”

“Net stop netlogon”

What is a Domain controller?

Domain controllers, which contain matching copies of the user
accounts and other Active

Directory data in a given domain.

What is a Member server?

Member servers, which belong to a domain but do not contain a copy
of the Active

Directory data.

What is standalone server?

A server that belongs to a workgroup, not a domain, is called a
stand-alone server.

What is standalone computer?

A computer that belongs to a workgroup, not a domain, is called a
stand-alone computer.

Note: With Windows 2000, it is possible to change the role of a server
back and forth

from domain controller to member server (or stand-alone server),
even after Setup is

complete.

What is a client?

A client is any device, such as personal computer, printer or any
other server, which

requests services or resources from a server. The most common
clients are workstations.

What is a server?

A server is a computer that provides network resources and
services to workstations and

other clients.

What is Main Domain Controller?

The first computer in the entire forest on which you have
performed DCPROMO.

What is additional Domain controller?

What is child domain controller?

How to know whether a server is Domain Controller or not?

You can find in three ways

1) By log on dialogue box

If it is a Domain Controller at Domain Names you won’t get “this

computer” option.

If you get “this computer” option in a server Operating System
that must

be a Member Server.

2) By My computer Properties

On Network Identification tab, the Properties button will be
disabled.

3) By typing DCPROMO

If it is already a Domain Controller you will uninstallation
wizard for

Active Directory.

If it is not a Domain Controller you will get installation wizard
for Active

Directory.

4. You should see the share of netlog and sysvol … just type
netshare at the

cmd prompt

5. You should be able o see the ntds setting in the winnt
directory

6. You should see the ntds folder in regedit ..

Who will replicate the Password changes?

PDC emulator (immediately it replicates to all the Domain
Controllers)

What are the file systems we have in windows?

FAT/FAT16/FAT32/NTFS 4.0/NTFS 5.0

How to convert from FAT to NTFS?

Convert drive /fs:ntfs

What is a forest?

Collection of one or more domain trees that do not form a
contiguous namespace. Forests

allow organizations to group divisions that operate independently
but still need to

communicate with one another.

All trees in a forest share common Schema, configuration
partitions and Global Catalog.

All trees in a give forest trust each other with two way
transitive trust relations.

What is a Domain?

A group of computers that are part of a network and shares a
common directory and

security polices. In Windows 2000 a domain is a security boundary
and permissions that

are granted in one domain are not carried over to other domains

What is a user principle name?

username@domainname.com

What is Fully Qualified Domain Name?

Hostname.domainname.com (this is also referred as computer name)

How many hard disks can you connect to a system at a time?

Maximum we can connect four Hard disks (If we don’t have CD ROM).

What are they?

Primary Master

Primary Slave

Secondary Master

Secondary Slave

Note: We cannot have two of same type at a time.

How types of disks are there in windows 2000?

Basic Disk

Dynamic Disk

Dynamic disk format does not work on a computer that contains more
than one operating

system. The only operating system that can access a hard disk
using dynamic disk format

is windows 2000.

What is a partition?

Disk Partition is a way of dividing your Physical Disk so that
each section functions as a

separate unit.

A partition divides a disk into sections that function as separate
units and that can be

formatted for use by a file system.

How many types of partitions are there?

Two types of partitions are there.

Primary partition

Extended partition.

What is the difference between primary and secondary partition?

A primary partition or system partition is one on which you can
install the files needed to

load an operating system.

How many partitions can you create maximum? (Among that how many
primary

and how many Extended?)

Maximum we can create 4 partitions in basic disk. Among that we
can create maximum 1

extended partition. You can create 4 primary partitions if you do
not have Extended.

What is a volume?

Disk volume is a way of dividing your Physical Disk so that each
section functions as a

separate unit.

How many types of volumes are there?

There are 5 types of volumes are there.

Simple

Spanned

Striped (also called RAID 0)

Mirror (Also called RAID 1)

RAID 5 (Also called striped volumes with parity)

What is the difference between partition and volume?

You have limitations on number of Partitions.

You don’t have limitations on number of volumes.

You cannot extend the size of a partition.

You can extend the size of a volume.

What is active (system) partition?

The partition in which your current Operating System boot files
are there.

What is system volume and boot volume?

The system volume is the one in which your boot files are there.

Whatever partition is marked as active that partition is called
system partition.

The boot volume is the one in which your system files are there.

Note: In Windows NT and Windows 2000 by default the system files
will be copied to

winnt directory and in Windows 2003 by default they are copied into Windows

directory.

What can you understand by seeing Logon Dialogue box?

IF it is windows 2000 professional operating system, that may be
standalone computer or

a client in a domain.

If you can see the domain name, then it is client. If not it is
standalone.

If it is Windows 2000 server family operating system, that may be
standalone computer

or member server or Domain controller.

If you can see the domain name, then it is either member server or
Domain controller.

If not it is standalone computer.

You have domain name but you don’t have this computer option then
it must be domain

controller.

You have domain name and also you have this computer option then
it is member server.

1. I have a file to which the user has access, but he has no folder
permission to

read it. Can he access it? It is possible for a user to navigate to a file for which

he does not have folder permission. This involves simply knowing
the path of the

file object. Even if the user can’t drill down the file/folder
tree using My

Computer, he can still gain access to the file using the Universal
Naming

Convention (UNC). The best way to start would be to type the full
path of a file

into Run… window.

What are Unicast, Multicast, and Broad cast?

Unicast: Just from one computer to one computer.

Multicast: Those who ever register for a particular multicast group to those
only.

Broadcast: To all the computers.

What is BIOS?

A computer’s basic input/output system (BIOS) is a set of software
through which the

operating system (or Setup) communicates with the computer’s
hardware devices.

What is the advantage of NTFS over FAT?

You must use the NTFS file system on domain controllers. In
addition, any servers that

have any partition formatted with FAT or FAT32 will lack many
security features. For

example, on FAT or FAT32 partitions, a shared folder can be
protected only by the

permissions set on the share, not on individual files, and there
is no software protection

against local access to the partition.

  • · File and folder level security
  • · We can do disk compression
  • · We can do disk quotas
  • · We can encrypt files
  • · We can do remote storage
  • · We can do dynamic volume
  • · We can mount volumes to folders
  • · We can support Macintosh files
  • · POSIX sub system

Note: When you format the operating system with NTFS then Windows NT and

Windows 2000 are only the operating systems that can read the
data.

Note: The only reason to use FAT or FAT32 is for dual booting with
previous versions

windows 2000 O. S.

What is NetMeeting? What is the use of NetMeeting?

NetMeeting enables you to communicate with others over the
Internet or your local

intranet. Using NetMeeting you can:

  • · Talk to others
  • · Use video to see others and let others see you
  • · Share applications and documents with others
  • · Collaborate with others in shared applications
  • · Send files to others
  • · Draw with others in a shared Whiteboard
  • · Send messages to others in chat

What are the features will you get when you upgrade from Windows
NT to

Windows 2000?

Active Directory includes the following features:

* Simplified management of network-resource information and user information.

* Group Policy, which you can use to set policies that apply across a given
site,

domain, or organizational unit in Active Directory.

* Security and authentication features, including support for
Kerberos V5, Secure

Sockets Layer v3, and Transport Layer Security using X.509v3
certificates.

* Directory consolidation, through which you can organize and
simplify the

management of users, computers, applications, and devices, and
make it easier for users

to find the information they need. You can take advantage of
synchronization support

through interfaces based on the Lightweight Directory Access
Protocol (LDAP), and

work wit

directory consolidation requirements specific to your applications.

* Directory-enabled applications and infrastructure, which make it
easier to configure

and manage applications and other directory-enabled network
components.

* Scalability without complexity, a result of Active Directory
scaling to millions of

objects per domain and using indexing technology and advanced
replication techniques to

speed performance.

* Use of Internet standards, including access through Lightweight
Directory Access

Protocol and a namespace based on the Domain Name System (DNS).

* Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI), a powerful
development environment.

* Additional features

Features Available with Upgrade of Any Server

———————————————————————-

The features in the following list are available when member
servers are upgraded in a

domain, regardless of whether domain servers have been upgraded.
The features available

when domain controllers are upgraded include not only the features
in the following list,

but also the features in the previous one.

* Management tools:

Microsoft Management Console Plug and

Play Device Manager Add/Remove Hardware wizard (in Control

Panel) Support for universal serial bus New Backup utility

* File system support:

Enhancements to the latest version of the NTFS file system include
support for disk

quotas, the ability to defragment directory structures, and
compressed network I/O.

* Application services:

Win32 Driver Model DirectX 5.0 Windows Script Host

* Printer protocol support:

Device and protocol support allowing choices from more than 2,500
different printers.

Other printing enhancements are included, for example, Internet
Printing Protocol

support, which allows users to print directly to a URL over an
intranet or the Internet.

* Scalability and availability:

Improved symmetric multiprocessor support

* Security:

Encrypting file system

Is there any situation to use the file system FAT or FAT32?

There is one situation in which you might want to choose FAT or
FAT32 as your file

system. If it is necessary to have a computer that will sometimes
run an earlier operating

system and sometimes run Windows 2000, you will need to have a FAT
or FAT32

partition as the primary (or startup) partition on the hard disk.

Note: For anything other than a situation with multiple operating
systems, however, the

recommended file system is NTFS.

NTFS

———————————————————————-

Some of the features you can use when you choose NTFS are:

* Active Directory, which you can use to view and control network
resources easily.

* Domains, which are part of Active Directory, and which you can
use to fine-tune

security options while keeping administration simple. Domain
controllers require NTFS.

* File encryption, which greatly enhances security.

* Permissions that can be set on individual files rather than just
folders.

* Sparse files. These are very large files created by applications
in such a way that only

limited disk space is needed. That is, NTFS allocates disk space
only to the portions of a

file that are written to.

* Remote Storage, which provides an extension to your disk space
by making

removable media such as tapes more accessible.

* Recovery logging of disk activities, which helps you restore
information quickly in

the event of power failure or other system problems.

* Disk quotas, which you can use to monitor and control the amount
of disk space used

by individual users.

* Better scalability to large drives. The maximum drive size for
NTFS is much greater

than that for FAT, and as drive size increases, performance with
NTFS doesn’t degrade as

it does with FAT.

Note:

It is recommended that you format the partition with NTFS rather
than converting from

FAT or FAT32. Formatting a partition erases all data on the
partition, but a partition that is

formatted with NTFS rather than converted from FAT or FAT32 will
have less

fragmentation and better performance.

What are the options do u get when you are shut downing?

Log off

Restart

Shut down

Stand by

Hibernate

Disconnect

Standby: Turns off your monitor and hard disks, and your computer use less

power.

A state, in which your computer consumes less electric power when
it is idle, but

remains available for immediate use. Typically, you’d put your
computer on stand by to

save power instead of leaving it on for extended periods.

In stand by mode, information in computer memory is not saved on
your hard

disk. If the computer loses power, the information in memory will
be lost.

This option appears only if your computer supports this feature
and you have

selected this option in Power Options. See Power Options overview
in Help.

Hibernation: Turns off your monitor and hard disk, saves everything in memory
on disk,

and turns off your computer. When you restart your computer, your
desktop is restored

exactly as you left it.

A state in which your computer saves any Windows settings that you
changed,

writes any information that is currently stored in memory to your
hard disk, and turns off

your computer. Unlike shutting down, when you restart your
computer, your desktop is

restored exactly as it was before hibernation.

Hibernate appears only if your computer supports this feature and
you have

selected the Enable hibernate support option in Power Options. See
Power Options

overview in Help.

Disconnect

A state, in which your Terminal Services session is disconnected,
but remains

active on the server. When you reconnect to Terminal Services, you
are returned to the

same session, and everything looks exactly as it did before you
disconnected.

Disconnect appears only if you are connected to a Windows 2000
Server running

Terminal Services.

Shut down

A state in which your computer saves any Windows settings that you
changed and

writes any information that is currently stored in memory to your
hard disk. This prepares

your computer to be turned off.

Restart

A state in which your computer saves any Windows settings that you
changed,

writes any information that is currently stored in memory to your
hard disk, and then

restarts your computer.

Log off

A state in which your computer closes all your programs,
disconnects your

computer from the network, and prepares your computer to be used
by someone else.

When connected to a Windows 2000 Server running Terminal Services,
Log off

closes all programs running in your Terminal Services session,
disconnects your session,

and returns you to your Windows desktop.

What are the setup files that are used to install windows 2000?

If you are installing from the Operating system DOS the setup file
is winnt.

If you are installing from Operating system windows 95/98, Win NT,
Win 2000, the setup

file is winnt32.

What is the error message do u get when you run “winnt” instead of winnt32 on 32

bit windows operating system (like Win 95/98, Win NT, and Win
2000)?

You will get the following message in DOS mode screen.

Windows 2000 Setup

════════════════════

This program does not run on any 32-bit version of Windows.

Use WINNT32.EXE instead.

Setup cannot continue. Press ENTER to exit.

What are the switches that are available with winnt32?

Winnt32

Sets up or upgrades Windows 2000 Server or Windows 2000
Professional. You

can run the winnt32 command at a Windows 95, Windows 98, or
Windows NT command

prompt.

winnt32 [/s:sourcepath] [/tempdrive:drive_letter]
[/unattend[num]:[answer_file]]

[/copydir:

folder_name] [/copysource:folder_name] [/cmd:command_line]

[/debug[level]:[filename]] [/udf:id[,

UDF_file]] [/syspart:drive_letter] [/checkupgradeonly] [/cmdcons]
[/m:folder_name] [

/makelocalsource] [/noreboot]

Parameters

/s:sourcepath

Specifies the source location of the Windows 2000 files. To
simultaneously copy files

from multiple servers, specify multiple /s sources. If you use
multiple /s switches, the

first specified server must be available or Setup will fail.

/tempdrive:drive_letter

Directs Setup to place temporary files on the specified partition
and to install

Windows 2000 on that partition.

/unattend

Upgrades your previous version of Windows 2000, Windows NT 3.51–4.0,
Windows 98,

or Windows 95 in unattended Setup mode. All user settings are
taken from the previous

installation, so no user intervention is required during Setup.

Using the /unattend switch to automate Setup affirms that you have
read and accepted the

End User License Agreement (EULA) for Windows 2000. Before using
this switch to

install Windows 2000 on behalf of an organization other than your
own, you must

confirm that the end user (whether an individual, or a single
entity) has received, read and

accepted the terms of the Windows 2000 EULA. OEMs may not specify
this key on

machines being sold to end users.

/unattend[num]:[answer_file]

Performs a fresh installation in unattended Setup mode. The answer
file provides Setup

with your custom specifications.

Num is the number of seconds between the time that Setup finishes
copying the files and

when it restarts your computer. You can use num on any computer
running Windows NT

or Windows 2000.

Answer_file is the name of the answer file.

/copydir:folder_name

Creates an additional folder within the folder in which the
Windows 2000 files are

installed. For example, if the source folder contains a folder
called Private_drivers that

has modifications just for your site, you can type
/copydir:Private_drivers to have Setup

copy that folder to your installed Windows 2000 folder. So then
the new folder location

would be C:\Winnt\Private_drivers. You can use /copydir to create
as many additional

folders as you want.

/copysource:folder_name

Creates a temporary additional folder within the folder in which
the Windows 2000 files

are installed. For example, if the source folder contains a folder
called Private_drivers

that has modifications just for your site, you can type
/copysource:Private_drivers to have

Setup copy that folder to your installed Windows 2000 folder and
use its files during

Setup. So then the temporary folder location would be
C:\Winnt\Private_drivers. Unlike

the folders /copydir creates, /copysource folders are deleted
after Setup completes.

/cmd:command_line

Instructs Setup to carry out a specific command before the final
phase of Setup. This

would occur after your computer has restarted twice and after
Setup has collected the

necessary configuration information, but before Setup is complete.

/debug[level]:[filename]

Creates a debug log at the level specified, for example,
/debug4:C:\Win2000.log. The

default log file is C:\

%Windir%\Winnt32.log, with the debug level set to 2. The log
levels are as follows: 0-

severe errors, 1-errors, 2-warnings, 3-information, and 4-detailed
information for

debugging. Each level includes the levels below it.

/udf:id[,UDB_file] indicates an identifier (id) that Setup uses to
specify how a

Uniqueness Database (UDB) file modifies an answer file (see the
/unattend entry). The

UDB overrides values in the answer file, and the identifier
determines which values in

the UDB file are used. For example, /udf:RAS_user,Our_company.udb
overrides settings

specified for the identifier RAS_user in the Our_company.udb file.
If no UDB_file is

specified, Setup prompts the user to insert a disk that contains
the $Unique$.udb file.

/syspart:drive_letter

Specifies that you can copy Setup startup files to a hard disk,
mark the disk as active, and

then install the disk into another computer. When you start that
computer, it automatically

starts with the next phase of the Setup . You must always use the
/tempdrive parameter

with the /syspart parameter.

The /syspart switch for Winnt32.exe only runs from a computer that
already has

Windows NT 3.51, Windows NT 4.0, or Windows 2000 installed on it.
It cannot be run

from Windows 9x.

/checkupgradeonly

Checks your computer for upgrade compatibility with Windows 2000.
For Windows 95

or Windows 98 upgrades, Setup creates a report named Upgrade.txt
in the Windows

installation folder. For Windows NT 3.51 or 4.0 upgrades, it saves
the report to the

Winnt32.log in the installation folder.

/cmdcons

Adds to the operating system selection screen a Recovery Console
option for repairing a

failed installation. It is only used post-Setup.

/m:folder_name

Specifies that Setup copies replacement files from an alternate
location. Instructs Setup to

look in the alternate location first and if files are present, use
them instead of the files

from the default location.

/makelocalsource

Instructs Setup to copy all installation source files to your
local hard disk. Use

/makelocalsource when installing from a CD to provide installation
files when the CD is

not available later in the installation.

/noreboot

Instructs Setup to not restart the computer after the file copy
phase of winnt32 is

completed so that you can execute another command.

What is the location of “hcl.txt” (Hard ware compatibility list)?

In Windows 2000 (either professional or any kind of server) CD,
there is a folder called

“support”. In the support folder the HCL.txt is placed.

What is the location of winnt and winnt32?

They are located in “i386” folder.

Where is the location of support tools?

In Windows 2000 (either professional or any kind of server) CD,
there is a folder called

“support”. In the support folder there is a sub folder called “Tools”

How to load support tools?

In the Windows 2000 CD (either professional or any kind of
server),

Click on support  Click on tools  Click on setup.exe

How to load Admin Pack?

In windows 2000 CD (Only server family),

Click on i386 folder  Click on adminpak.msi

Or

Go to command prompt (in server operating system only) Go to winnt/system32

directory  type adminpak.msi or type Msiexec /i
adminpak.msi

Note: Adminpak.msi is not included in the professional CD.

If you want to load the administrative tools in the local computer
you can load. But you

must have administrative permissions for the local computer to
install and run

Windows 2000 Administration Tools.

How do you install the Windows 2000 deployment tools, such as the
Setup Manager

Wizard and the System Preparation tool?

To install the Windows 2000 Setup Tools, display the contents of
the Deploy. cab file,

which is located in the Support\Tools folder on the Windows 2000
CD-ROM. Select all

the files you want to extract, right-click a selected file, and
then select Extract from the

menu. You will be prompted for a destination, the location and
name of a folder, for the

extracted files.

How to create a boot floppy?

To create a boot floppy, open windows 2000 CD.

Click on boot disk folder  click on either makeboot or makebt32

Note: If you want to boot from MS-DOS then create floppy disk by using
the command

Makeboot.

What is Desktop?

The desktop, which is the screen that you see after you log on to
Windows 2000, is one of

the most important features on your computer. The desktop can contain
shortcuts to your

most frequently used programs, documents, and printers.

Suppose if your CD is auto play CD. Then what is the key that is
used to stop the

auto play of the CD?

Hold the shift key for some time immediately after inserting the
CD.

What is Netware?

Netware is a computer network operating system developed by Novell.

What is Network?

A network is a group of computers that can communicate with each
other, share resources

such as hard disks and printers, and access remote hosts or other
networks.

The basic components of a network are:

  • · One or more servers
  • · Workstations
  • · Network Interface Cards
  • · Communication media
  • · Peripheral devices (such as printers)

What is network Interface card?

A Network Interface Card is a circuit board installed on each
computer to allow servers

and workstations to communicate with each other.

What are peripheral devices?

Peripheral devices are computer related devices, such as local
printers, disk drivers and

modems.

What is LAN driver?

The LAN driver controls the workstation’s Network Interface card.

A LAN driver serves as a link between an operating system of a
station and the physical

network parts.

Why should we logon?

Login enables the user to use the resources and services, such as files,
printers and

messaging, which are available in the Network.

When the user Identity is authenticated and his or her rights to
resources and

services are determined.

When the user logs out, he or she is then disconnected from all
parts of the

network.

Drive Letters:

Each workstation can assign up to 26 letters to regular drive
mappings. Drive

letters that are not used by local devices are available for
network drives.

Generally the Drive letters A and B represents floppy disk drives and C represents

the local hard disk.

What do you call the right hand side portion (i.e., where the
clock and other icons

exist) of task bar?

System Tray or Notification area

What is Plug and Play?

Plug and Play hardware, which Windows 2000 automatically detects,
installs, and

configures.

What is the command to encrypt a file from command prompt?

Cipher.exe

What is the minimum and maximum configuration to create a
partition in NTFS?

The minimum size to create a partition in NTFS is 8 MB.

The maximum size to create a partition in NTFS is the disk
capacity.

How many ways can you install Windows 2000?

1) Insert the CD, boot from the CD, and install the O.S. (This is
the best way)

2) Boot from the floppy, insert the CD, and install the O.S.

3) Install over the network or install over the Hard disk. For
this you have to run the files

WinNT or winnt32.

Note: WinNT is used when you r installing from the operating system
other than

Windows NT or 2000. (I.e., DOS, windows 95/98 or any other)

Winnt32 is used if you are installing from O.S. Windows NT or
Windows 2000.

What is WINS and what it does?

WINS stands for Windows Internet Naming Service. It resolves
NETBIOS names

to IP addresses. WINS is used only when you need to access the
NETBIOS resources.

What is there in the network before wins?

Initially the computers in the network used to communicate with
broadcast. If

there is less number of hosts, then there is no problem. But when
there is more number of

hosts on the network more traffic will be generated. So later they
invented lmhost file

(LAN Manager Host file). By this they configure the lmhost file of
each computer with

the entries of each computer’s IP address and NETBIOS name. So
each computer will

look into its lmhost file to resolve NETBIOS names. But
configuring each computer

lmhost file manually is time consuming and more difficult. Later
then invented

centralized lmhost file. By this they configure lmhost on one
server, and tell each

computer to use that lmhost file. But in this you need to
configure the centralized lmhost

file manually. So Microsoft introduced WINS. By this you need to
install WINS on a

server in the network and configure the computers to use that WINS
server. That’s all,

you need not configure any thing on WINS server. The WINS server
makes an entry

automatically when a client is initialized to use WINS.

Note: A UNIX does not have ability to register into WINS database. But
if a UNIX

server is there in network and you need to resolve it, then for
this you need to configure

manually the entry of that UNIX server in the WINS server.

What is NETBIOS?

NETBIOS stands for Network Basic Input Output System. It is a
naming interface, it is

interface by which client can connect to access the lower level of
the TCP/IP model to be

able to communicate and access those resources.

We share resources with the NETBIOS interface in windows NT. This
means that

we are using NetBIOS name to connect the client to the server.

What is the length of NETBIOS name?

A NETBIOS name is 16 characters long. The first fifteen characters
you can use

for the server name, the 16th character is an identifier for what type of service it is

registering.

What is the location of lmhost file (LAN Manager Host file) in
windows 2000?

Winnt/system32/drivers/etc/lmhost.sam

Note: Extension represents that it is a sample file. You can create
lmhost file with out that

extension.

What are Windows 2000 WINS enhancements when compare to the
previous

versions?

  • · Better Management interface
  • · Better clients
  • · Replication can maintain persistent connections.
  • · Supports automatic partner discovery
  • · Integrates with DNS and DHCP
  • · Supports burst mode handling

What is the port used for Terminal Services?

3389

How to know 3389 is working or not?

Netstat -a (Displays all connections and listening of ports)

What are the different sub net classes are there?

Class A Addresses 1-126.x.x.x

Class B Addresses 128-191.x.x.x

Class C Addresses 192-223.x.x.x

Class D Addresses 224-239.x.x.x

Class E Addresses 240-254.x.x.x

What are the features and benefits of windows 2000 professional?

 Windows 2000 professional is an upgrade of
Windows NT workstation. So we

have the base code of Windows NT rather than Windows 95/98. So you
get the

security and stability of Windows NT. But from Windows 2000 we get
some of

the features of 95/98. Specifically Plug and Play, Device
manager.

 We have personalized start menus with windows 2000.

 We can deploy software automatically.

 We also have Widows installer package.

 We have synchronization manager.

 We have Internet printing protocol.

 We have Kerberos V5 protocol technology.

 We have EFS (Encrypting file system).

 We have IPSec protocol.

 We have a support for smart card.

 We have secondary log on service.

 Kerberos 5 security protocol

And many more

Note: Suppose you have a computer in remote location. In that you have
multiple

operating systems. You want to restart it from here with a
specific operating system. Then

go to Properties of My computer  Advanced tab  settings 

At this place set default operating system as required operating
system. Then restart the

computer.

Note: In windows 2000 if you want to update objects immediately we use secedit

/refreshpolicy refresh_machine and another one. In windows 2003 the alternate

command for this is gpupdate, type this command at run prompt then it updates

automatically.

How can you know that Active directory is installed properly?

It will create a folder called sysvol under c:\windows. With in the sysvol folder you

should have four folders, namely Domain, staging, sysvol, staging area. Apart form this

you should have NTDS folder (In c:\windows) containing ntds.dit
file and four log files.

How can you see the post screen when the system started?

When the system starts press the Break key. Then it post screen is stopped there only,
to

continue press Enter.

When a user logs on the start up options will be loaded. How to
stop them? (The

notification area icons)

When a user types user name and password, and presses enter
immediately hold down

Shift key. Then the above things will not be loaded.

What are the features of Active directory?

See the “benefits of Active directory” document in this folder.

1. What is the range of addresses in the classes of internet
addresses?

Class A 0.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255

Class B 128.0.0.0 – 191.255.255.255

Class C 192.0.0.0 – 223.255.255.255

Class D 224.0.0.0 – 239.255.255.255

Class E 240.0.0.0 – 254.255.255.255

Note: Class A, Class B, Class C are used to assign IP addresses. Class D
is used for

Multicasting. Class E is reserved for the future (Experimental).

What is hot swapping?

Replacing the hard disks other than active disk, when the
computers on.

What commands do you need to execute before upgrading to windows
2000 to

windows 2003?

Before upgrading to windows 2000 to windows 2003 insert the CD of
windows 2003

then open 1386 folder, then at command prompt type the following
commands.

Adprep /forestprep

Adprep /domainprep

(i. e., f:\1386(2003)>adprep /forestprep and
f:\1386(2003)>adprep /domainprep)

If you are upgrading entire forest type the adprep /forestprep at
root domain.

If you are upgrading only a domain then type the adprep
/domainprep at

root domain.

Note: You have to type the above commands on the server which has IM
role.

Then only you have to upgrade your systems.

How to take backup?

StartProgramsAccessoriesSystem tools  backup  click on backup tab

There you can select the required one.

The system state backup includes the following files

  • · Boot files
  • · Com+ class registration database
  • · Registry

If the system is domain controller then apart from above files it
takes backup of the

following files also.

  • · Active directory
  • · Sys vol

Note: If you want to restore the system state backup on a domain
controller you have to

restart the computer in Directory Services restore mode, because
you are restoring Active

Directory when it is in active. If you want to restore Active
Directory it should not be in

active. If you restart the computer in Directory services restore
mode the Active directory

is not in active, so you can restore the Active directory.

You can restore Active Directory in two ways

Authoritative restore

Non Authoritative restore

Non Authoritative restore

Restart the computer

Press F8 to select Directory services restore mode

Start  Programs Accessories  system tools  Backup  Click on restore

tab  Select the restore file  Click on restore now

Restart the computer

Authoritative Restore mode

Restart the computer

Press F8 to select Directory services restore mode

Start  Programs Accessories  system tools  Backup  Click on restore

tab  Select the restore file  Click on restore now

Open command prompt

Type ntdsutil

Type authoritative restore

Note: Here you can restore authoritatively entire database or a
particular OU. But you

cannot restore a particular object.

Type restore sub tree distinguished name of OU

Ex: research is a OU under yahoo.com, then you have to type
distinguished name like

ou=research, dc=yahoo, dc=com

What are the logical components of Active Directory?

Organizational Units

Domains

Trees

Forests

What are the physical components of Active Directory?

Sites

Domain Controllers

Global Catalogue

Who can create site level Group Policy?

Enterprise Admin

Who can create Domain lever Group Policy?

Domain Admin

Who can create Organization Unit lever Group Policy?

Domain Admin

Who can create Local Group Policy?

Local Administrator or Domain Administrator

What is the hierarchy of Group Policy?

Local policy

Site Policy

Domain Policy

OU Policy

Sub OU Policy (If any are there)

Explain about Active Directory database.

The information stored in the Active Directory is called Active
Directory database.

The information stored in the Active Directory (i. e., Active
directory database) on every

domain controller in the forest is partitioned into three
categories. They are

  • · Domain Partition
  • · Configuration Partition
  • · Schema Partition

Domain Partition

The domain partition contains all of the objects in the directory
for a domain.

Domain data in each domain is replicated to every domain
controller in that domain, but

not beyond its domain.

Configuration Partition

Schema Partition

The schema partition contains all object types and their
attributes that can be

created in Active Directory. This data is common to all domain
controllers in the domain

tree or forest, and is replicated by Active Directory to all the
domain controllers in the

forest.

What is Global Catalogue?

The global catalogue holds a partial replica of domain data
directory partitions for

all domains in the forest. By default, the partial set of
attributes stored in the global

catalog includes those attributes most frequently used in search
operations, because one

of the primary functions of the global catalogue is to support
clients querying the

directory.

Explain about different groups in Active directory.

There are two types of groups are the in Active directory.

Security group

Distributed group

What is the protocol that is used for security in Windows 2000?

Kerberos V5

How many can you open Task Manager?

One can open Task Manager in three ways

1) Start Run Taskmgrok

2) Right click on Task bar Select Task manager

3) Press CTRL + ALT + DELETE  click on Task Manager

4) Press CTRL+ Shift + ESC (short cut key)

How many ways do you have to determine whether a computer is
Domain

Controller or not?

There are several ways to determine

1) On log on Windows dialogue box see whether the log on field has this computer

option or not. If it contains only domain names then it is a
Domain Controller, if it

contains this computer option then it is either
Work station or Member server.

2) Start  Run Type netdom query fsmo  The computer names that have been

listed there are Domain Controller.

3) Search for NTDS and Sysvol folder in system directory, if they are there then it is a

Domain Controller.

4) StartRun Regedit32 Search for NTDS folder in HKEY_LOCALMACHINE

If you find that one then it is a Domain Controller.

5) Start  Programs Administrative tools  Active Directory Users and
Computers

 Click on Domain Controller OU  the names that are listed
there are the names

of the domain controllers.

6) In 2000 you cannot change the name of the Domain
Controller so Right click on My

computer Properties Network Identification  There Change button is grayed

out.

Sub Netting

Class C sub netting

IP address 198.100.98.0

Decimal mask 255.255.255.224

Convert 224 into binary  11100000(2)

Maximum no. of combinations = 2n (Where n is number of masked bits)

Note: Masked bit = 1, UN masked bit= 0.

Maximum number of subnets 2n-2

Maximum number of hosts/subnet  2m-2 (Where
m is number of unmasked bits)

Now 224(10) = 11100000(2)

Maximum no. of combinations = 2n = 23 = 8

Maximum no. of subnets =2n-2 = 23-2 = 6

Maximum no. of hosts/subnet=2m -2 =25 -2 = 30

Available combinations

0  000 (This is not used for assigning IP address)

1  001

2  010

3  011

4  100

5  101

6  110

7  111 (This is not used for assigning IP address)

Octant contains 8 bits, presently we have 3 bits (Remaining 5 bits
are zeros)

00100000 = 32

01000000 = 64

01100000 = 96

10000000 = 128

10100000 = 160

11000000 = 192

Therefore modified subnets are

255.255.255.32

255.255.255.64

255.255.255.96

255.255.255.128

255.255.255.160

255.255.255.192

IP addressing for subnet 255.255.255.32

First IP address 198.100.98.33

Subnet mask 255.255.255.32

Second IP address 198.100.98.34

Subnet mask 255.255.255.32

Third IP address 198.100.98.35

Subnet mask 255.255.255.32

Fourth IP address 198.100.98.36

Subnet mask 255.255.255.32

↓↓↓

Last IP address 198.100.98.63

Subnet mask 255.255.255.32

IP addressing for subnet 255.255.255.64

First IP address 198.100.98.64

Subnet mask 255.255.255.64

Second IP address 198.100.98.65

Subnet mask 255.255.255.64

Third IP address 198.100.98.66

Subnet mask 255.255.255.64

Fourth IP address 198.100.98.67

Subnet mask 255.255.255.64

↓↓↓

Last IP address 198.100.98.95

Subnet mask 255.255.255.64

IP addressing for subnet 255.255.255.96

First IP address 198.100.98.64

Subnet mask 255.255.255.96

Second IP address 198.100.98.65

Subnet mask 255.255.255.96

Third IP address 198.100.98.66

Subnet mask 255.255.255.96

Fourth IP address 198.100.98.67

Subnet mask 255.255.255.96

↓↓↓

Last IP address 198.100.98.95

Subnet mask 255.255.255.96

IP addressing for subnet 255.255.255.128

First IP address 198.100.98.64

Subnet mask 255.255.255.128

Second IP address 198.100.98.65

Subnet mask 255.255.255.128

Third IP address 198.100.98.66

Subnet mask 255.255.255.128

Fourth IP address 198.100.98.67

Subnet mask 255.255.255.128

↓↓↓

Last IP address 198.100.98.95

Subnet mask 255.255.255.128

IP addressing for subnet 255.255.255.160

First IP address 198.100.98.64

Subnet mask 255.255.255.160

Second IP address 198.100.98.65

Subnet mask 255.255.255.160

Third IP address 198.100.98.66

Subnet mask 255.255.255.160

Fourth IP address 198.100.98.67

Subnet mask 255.255.255.160

↓↓

Last IP address 198.100.98.95

Subnet mask 255.255.255.160

IP addressing for subnet 255.255.255.192

First IP address 198.100.98.64

Subnet mask 255.255.255.192

Second IP address 198.100.98.65

Subnet mask 255.255.255.192

Third IP address 198.100.98.66

Subnet mask 255.255.255.192

Fourth IP address 198.100.98.67

Subnet mask 255.255.255.192

↓↓

Last IP address 198.100.98.95

Subnet mask 255.255.255.192

Another Example:

200.150.80.0

255.255.255.192

192(10) 11000000(2)

Class B Sub netting

Example:

IP address 140.80.1.0

Subnet mask 255.255.240.0

240(10) 11110000(2)

Here n=4 (Because 148.80.1.0 11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000)

m= 12 (Because 148.80.1.0 11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000)

Maximum no. of combinations  2n = 24 = 16

Max no. of subnets  2n-2 = 14

Max no. of hosts/subnet  2m-2 =212-2 = 4096-2 =4094

Number of combinations (16)

00000000 = 0 (This is not used for assigning IP address)

00010000 = 16

00100000 = 32

00110000 = 48

01000000 = 64

01010000 = 80

01100000 = 96

01110000 = 112

10000000 = 128

↓↓

11100000 = 224

11110000 = 240 (This is not used for assigning IP address)

Modified subnets are

255.255.16.0

255.255.32.0

255.255.48.0

255.255.64.0

255.255.80.0

255.255.96.0

↓↓

255.255.224.0

IP addressing for modified subnets:

255.255.16.0 Subnet

IP address 140.80.16.1

Subnet mask 255.255.16.0

↓↓

IP address 140.80.16.254

Subnet mask 255.255.16.0

And

IP address 140.80.17.1

Subnet mask 255.255.16.0

↓↓

IP address 140.80.17.254

Subnet mask 255.255.16.0

And

IP address 140.80.18.1

Subnet mask 255.255.16.0

↓↓

IP address 140.80.18.254

Subnet mask 255.255.16.0

And

IP address 140.80.19.1

Subnet mask 255.255.16.0

↓↓

IP address 140.80.19.254

Subnet mask 255.255.16.0

And

IP address 140.80.20.1

Subnet mask 255.255.16.0

↓↓

IP address 140.80.20.254

Subnet mask 255.255.16.0

And 21, 22, 23, 24 up to 31.

255.255.32.0 Subnet

IP address 140.80.32.1

Subnet mask 255.255.32.0

↓↓

IP address 140.80.32.254

Subnet mask 255.255.32.0

And

IP address 140.80.33.1

Subnet mask 255.255.32.0

↓↓

IP address 140.80.33.254

Subnet mask 255.255.32.0

And

IP address 140.80.34.1

Subnet mask 255.255.32.0

↓↓

IP address 140.80.34.254

Subnet mask 255.255.32.0

And

IP address 140.80.35.1

Subnet mask 255.255.32.0

↓↓

IP address 140.80.35.254

Subnet mask 255.255.32.0

And 36, 37, 38, 39 up to 48.

Next subnets are 64, 80, and 96, up to 224.

Diagnostic Utilities

a) PING b) finger c) hostname d) Nslookup e) ipconfig f) Netstat

g) NBTStat h) Route i) Tracer j) ARP

PING:

Verifies that TCP/IP is configured and another host is available.

FINGER:

Retrieves system information from a remote computer that supports
TCP/IP

finger services

HOSTNAME:

It displays the host name.

NSLOOKUP:

Examines Entries in the DNS database, which pertains to a
particular host or

domain

NETSTAT:

Displays protocol statistics and the current state of TCP/IP
concepts.

NBTSTAT:

Checks the state of current NetBIOS over TCP/IP connections,
updates LMhost’s

cache or determines your registered name or scope ID.

Route:

Views or modifies the local routing table.

TRACERT

Verifies the route from the local host to remote host

ARP

Displays a cache of local resolved IP address to MAC address

What is Dedicated Line?

Any telecommunications line that is continuously available for the
subscriber with

little or no latency. Dedicated lines are also referred to as “leased
lines.”

Note: The other one is the Dial up line.

What is Dial up line?

Any telecommunications link that is serviced by a modem. Dial-up
lines are

ordinary phone lines used for voice communication, while dedicated
or leased lines are

digital lines with dedicated circuits. Dial-up lines are generally
much less expensive to

use, but they have less available bandwidth.

What is FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name)?

Hostname.Domain.com

Give an Example for FQDN?

For example, the fully qualified domain name (FQDN)
barney.northwind.microsoft.com

can be broken down as follows:

  • · Host name: barney
  • · Third-level domain: north wind (stands for North wind Traders
    Ltd., a fictitious

Microsoft subsidiary)

  • · Second-level domain: Microsoft (Microsoft Corporation)
  • · Top-level domain: com (commercial domain)

The root domain has a null label and is not expressed in the FQDN

How to know port 3389 (Terminal services) is working or
not?

netstat -a (Displays all connections and listening of
ports)

What is a host?

Any device on a TCP/IP network that has an IP address. Example
includes severs, clients,

network interface print devices, routers.

How is the host identified in the network?

By a TCP/IP address.

What is a Host name?

An alias given to a computer on TCP/IP network to identify it on
the network. Host

names are friendlier way to TCP/IP hosts than IP address.

A host name can contain A-Z, 0-9, “.”, “-“, characters.

What is Logon Credentials?

The information authenticate a user, generally consisting of

User Name

Password

Domain Name

What is the Refresh interval for Group Policy?

Refresh interval for Domain Controllers is 5 minutes, and the
refresh interval for all

other computers in the network is 45 minutes (doubt).

How many ports are there?

There are 65535 ports are there.

Note: The ports 0-1023 are called well known ports and all other
ports are called

Dynamic or private ports (i.e., 1024-65535)

How to do quick shutdown/restart?

Press Ctrl +Alt +Del, on the dialogue box you can shutdown button.

While pressing shutdown button hold CTRL key

What is native mode and what is mixed mode?

If some of your domain controller are Windows NT in the windows
2000 domain,

that is called mixed mode. If you want to compatible with NT
domain controller in

windows 2000 domain you should be in mixed mode.

If all of your domain controllers are windows 2000 then you can
change mixed

mode to native mode. After changing to native mode you will some
extra functionality to

secure your windows 2000 domain.

Ex: On user account properties, click on dial-in tab then you can see some
extra options.

How to change mixed mode to native mode?

Start  Programs  Administrative tools  Active directory users and
computers 

Right click on Domain  Drag down to properties  on General tab click on Change

mode button  Click Yes

Note: By default windows 2000 will be loaded in mixed mode. You can
change windows

2000 from mixed mode to native mode, but once if you change mixed
mode to native

mode you cannot change from native mode to mixed mode.

Note: When you are formatting the disk, if you set the block size as
default, windows

2000/XP/2003 divides the partition into 4 KB blocks. When you are
creating a file or

folder it allocates space to that file or folder in multiples of 4
KB. When you create a

new file first time it allocates 4 KB, after 4 KB is filled up it
allocates another 4 KB size,

it goes on like this until the disk space is completed.

Note: With windows 2000 advanced server and data centre server we can
NLB cluster 2

to 32 servers. It supports clustering up to 2 nodes.

Note: With disk quotas we can track the usage of disk space for each
user. We can limit

each user to use certain amount of space.

What is latency?

The required time for all updates to be completed throughout all
domain

controllers on the network domain or forest.

What is convergence?

The state at which all domain controllers have the same replica
contents of the

Active Directory database.

How to force KCC to generate connection object immediately without
delay?

Type the command repadmin /kcc. This command forces the KCC to generate

connection object immediately without any delay.

What are the file names that we cannot create in Windows operating
system?

The file names that cannot be created in Windows operating system
are

 Con

 Prn

 Lpt1, Lpt2, Lpt3, Lpt4, ….., Lpt9

 Com1, com2 com3, com4, com5,….., com9

 Nul

 Aux

Note: The file name clock$ cannot be created in DOS 6.22 or earlier versions of DOS.

What is QoS?

QoS stands for Quality of Service. With QoS we can reserve
bandwidth to certain

applications.

What is NAT?

NAT stands for Network Address Translation. It is a device between
the Internet

(i.e., public network) and our private network. On one NIC card it
has valid Internet

address; on the other NIC it has our private (internal) network
address.

NAT is a device that translates one valid public IP address to
more tuple internal

private address.

We load Windows 2000 RRAS (Routing and Remote Access service)
service into

this Windows 2000 server and we turn in to a router. Now we add
NAT protocol, so now

onwards our internal clients sends their traffic through this
router to the internet, when it

passing through this NAT server it stripes off the internal
network IP address and assigns

a valid public IP address. So goes out and communicates with that
valid public IP

address, comes back in the NAT server stripes off the public IP
address and replaces

private IP address, sends the traffic back to that particular
client.

For client perspective they don’t know any thing except they are
surfing internet.

We load RRAS in to windows 2000 server; we turn this server as
router. Now we add

NAT protocol, so that now on our clients can send traffic to
internet through this router ,

as it passes through the NAT server this server stripes off the
internal IP address and

replaces with a valid public IP address. Then it goes to the
internet surf the internet when

it comes back through the NAT server, now NAT server stripes off
the valid public IP

address and replaces it with its internal IP address sends the
traffic to that particular

client.

How to go to the NAT options?

Start  Programs  Administrative tools  RRAS  IP routing  NAT

Note: Windows 2000 NAT can acts as a DHCP server. So it is possible to
give IP address

with our NAT server. When you are doing this make sure that you
don’t have DHCP

server in your network.

If you have less clients (5 or 6) then there is no harm assigning
IP address through

NAT, but if your network is big then best is to use DHCP.

How to enable DHCP service through NAT?

Start  Programs  Administrative tools  RRAS  IP routing  Right click on NAT

 go to properties  Click on Address assignment  Select the option automatically

assign IP address by using DHCP

Note: If don’t want to use your NAT server to assign IP addresses clear
the check box.

Note: NAT server contains at least two NIC, because one for internal IP
address and

another one for external (Public IP).

How to add public IP address pools to our NAT server?

Start  Programs  Administrative tools  RRAS  IP routing  click on NAT  on

Right hand side you see network cards  click on external NIC
(which has a valid public

IP) Click on Address pool tab  Click on add button  Give the pool of IP
addresses.

Note: By default there is no access to the internal devices on the NAT
network to out side

clients. By default out side clients cannot access any thing in
our Nat network.

What are the limitations of Windows 2000 NAT?

 Supports only TCP/IP

There is no support for IPX or other protocol.

No support for:

 SNMP (so we cannot do SNMP monitoring for our
NAT devices)

 LDAP

 Com / Dcom

 Kerberos V5

 RPC

 IPSec

Note: Windows 2000 NAT doesn’t allow L2TP traffic, it allows only PPTP
traffic.

What is proxy?

NAT server helps the client to access Internet, where as proxy
server does every

thing for client. When a request comes from the client the proxy
server surfs the internet

and caches the results to its local disk, sends that result to the
client.

With proxy we have performance improvement, because results are
cached to the

local hard disk.

With proxy we have security, because only one system in the
internal network

communicating with the Internet.

Rather than allowing clients to access internet by changing IP
address, the proxy

server does all the surfing for clients and caches to its local
disk and gives to the clients.

How to install proxy server 2.0 on windows 2000?

There is a patch to install proxy on windows 2000. It doesn’t
install natively on windows

2000. You have to install along with the windows 2000 patch. You
can download this

patch from Microsoft website. Or you can get this in windows proxy
CD.

Go to Proxy folder  Click on windows proxy update  click on the patch file  Go

through the wizard.

This patch file invokes the proxy installation.

To configure the proxy settings

Start  Programs Microsoft proxy server  Microsoft management
console  we get

MMC for Internet Information Service, because our proxy server is
incorporated with in

IIS service.

With proxy we have two types of caching.

Active caching

Passive caching

How to set proxy setting to the clients?

Right click Internet explorer  Click on connections  Click on LAN settings  Click

use proxy server  type the IP address of the proxy server and port
that we are using

What are the features of Microsoft proxy 2.0?

Active / Passive caching

User level control

IP filters

Access logs

Access to the internet for IPX clients

What we get with RRAS?

We will get with RRAS the ability to create a fully functional
router with our windows

2000 server.

We will get quite a bit of Remote connectivity functionality. It
also can support

clients dialing in through phone lines, or through the internet
through a virtual private

network.

What IAS does for us?

Internet Authentication server gives us RADIUS server. RADIUS
stands for Remote

Authentication Dial in User Server, RADIUS is an industry
standard.

Note: an IP address is assigned to every device that you want access on
the network, and

each have unique IP address. A client, server, every interface of
router, printer and all

devices on the network should have an IP address to communicate in
the network.

Note: In class C address we have 254 clients for each subnet.

In class B address we have approximately 65,534 hosts per subnet.

In class A address we have millions of hosts per subnet.

Numbers can range from 0-255, but x.x.x.0 is used for identifying
network and

x.x.x.255 is used for broadcasting, so we use the numbers from
1-254.

Note: The portion between two firewalls is called screened subnet,
in corporate network

we call it as DMZ (De Militarized zone)

Who is responsible to assign Public IP address?

The responsible organization to assign IP address is IntetNIC (Internet Network

Information Centre). This organization assigns public IP address
to all individuals or

organizations. But you can take IP address from ISP’s (Internet
Service Providers),

because ISP’s buys a pool IP addresses from InterNIC and then sells to others.

Note: Tracrt command traces the root (path) for which we are connecting.

Pathping is combination of tracert and ping. It displays path and some
other

information.

Note: When DNS stops you will see the event ID is 2.

When DNS starts you will see the event ID is 3.

When GC is enabled you will see the event ID 1119 on that
particular server.

When time synchronization enabled you can see event ID’s 35 and
37.

How to increase or decrease tomb stone interval?

By default tomb stone interval is 60 days. You can increase or
decrease the tomb stone

interval. You can decrease till 2 days. You can increase as much
as you want.

To decrease tomb stone interval we use ADSI edit.

With windows 2000 we have the advantage being able to configure
our Windows

2000 server with RRAS service, and turn our windows 2000 server
into a router.

What are the functionalities of RRAS?

 Supports IP + IPX routing

 Supports numerous interface types

 IP filters

 Integrates with active directory

 Supports standard routing protocols

  • · RIP version 1 or version 2 (Routing information protocol)
  • · OSPF
  • · IGMP ( Internet Group Management Protocol)

This is for multicasting. Ex: Video conference sent to more people
at a

time.

What are Unicast, Multicast, and Broad cast?

Unicast: Just from one computer to one computer.

Multicast: Those who ever register for a particular multicast group to those
only.

Broadcast: To all the computers.

Note: with RIP version 1 we cannot do CIDR /VLSM. To transfer the route
table to the

all routers RIP version 1 uses broad cast. With RIP version 2 we
can do CIDR. To transfer

the route table to all routers RIP version 2 uses multicast. Also
with version 2 we have

password authentication to transfer router table.

What is VPN?

VPN stands for Virtual Private Network. By using public media we
are

establishing a private secure connection. To communicate through
VPN we use PPTP

(Point to Point Tunneling Protocol) or L2TP (Layer2 Tunneling
Protocol).

Most cases we use L2TP because this is more secure. The only one
case that we

use PPTP is only when we are trying to use VPN through a NAT
server, another reason to

use is if don’t have windows clients that have capability to
establish L2TP VPN

connection.

RADIUS

RADIUS stands for Remote Authentication Dial in User Service. It is used
to

authenticate remote users. Instead of authenticating users at
individual RAS server, we

pass a request to central server (RADIUS server), and let the
authentication happen there.

All RAS servers pass authentication requests to this central
server (RADIUS server) that

is doing the authentication. It is authenticating users based on
Active Directory. It is also

doing reporting, so it is doing .accounting and authentication.
With RADIUS

authentication will takes place at a central location. Now there
is no need to maintain a

local database of users for each RAS server. When ever
authentication needed RAS

server forwards query to RADIUS server.

Accounting means we keep tracking who is connected, how long, why
they failed to

connect etc., the information is all centralized here.

By centralizing accountability and authentication we are doing our
RAS servers

as dumb devices. So when RAS server fails then there is no need to
worry about the 100

or 1000 accounts we manually created on the RAS server, so that we
can authenticate. All

you need to do is swap out this device with another and configure
it to pass the

authentication to RADIUS server.

Note: Terminology wise the central server is RADIUS server. Clients for
RADIUS are

RAS servers.

How to configure RADIUS client?

RADIUS client is nothing but RAS server. In windows 2000 it is
RRAS server.

Go to RRAS server  Start  Programs  Administrative tools  RRAS  Right

click the server  drag down to the properties  click on security  Select

Authentication provider as RADIUS server  Select Accounting provider as

RADIUS server  Click on configure (at Authentication as well as at Accounting) 

Add the server that is going to act as a RADIUS server  hit OK  Restart RRAS

service.

How to create a RADIUS server?

To make server as a RADIUS server we install Internet
Authentication Service.

Start  Settings  Control panel  Add/Remove programs  Add/Remove windows

components  Select Network services  click on details  Select Internet

Authentication service  Click on OK

Now you can open IAS MMC.

Start  Programs  Administrative tools  Internet Authentication
Service  Right

click on client  Add new client  give the names of RAS servers  Select the

appropriate options  click finish

Note: One of thing you have to do is Register Internet Authentication
service in Active

Directory.

Administrative tools  Internet Authentication service  Right click at the root 

select Register service in Active Directory

Now our IAS can access Active Directory so that it can authenticate
users by using

Active Directory our Active Directory database.

Note: Put your RAS server close to the clients. Put your RADIUS server
close to the

Active Directory database.

Tell me how to upgrade from 2000 to 2003?

Actually it is one month procedure. I will brief you important
things.

Perform adprep /forestprep on the domain controller which has
schema role.

This is one time operation per forest.

Perform adprep /domainprep on the domain controller which has IM
role (You have to

this in the domain for which you want up gradation)

This is one time operation per domain.

Now the following things are common to all domain controllers
which you are upgrading

from 2000 to 2003.

 Remove administrative tools and support tools

 Run the command winnt32.exe /checkupgrade only.

 Install any hot fixes, if there are any
suggested Microsoft, or suggested by End

market administrator (if they have any own applications)

 Then upgrade by running the command winnt32.exe
from windows 20003 CD

ROM

How do you take back ups?

On Monday we will take Normal backup.

Then we follow Incremental backup till Friday

Note: For incremental backup more no. of tapes are required. For
differential backup

much space is required on the tape, but we need only two tapes to
restore the data.

How to know the MAC address of a Network interface card?

First type the Ping IP address (IP address of the Network
interface card for which you

want to know the MAC address)

Then it caches the MAC address.

Now type Arp –a

This command shows the cached MAC address of that particular NIC.

Note: If you install DCPROMO in member server then it will become Domain

Controller, if you uninstall DCPROMO in Domain Controller then it
will become

Member server, if you are uninstalling DCPROMO on last domain
controller then it will

become standalone server.

Note: Always file size is less than or equal to file size on disk except when file

compressed. If file is compressed file size greater than file size on disk.

The data replicated between domain controllers is called data and also called

naming context. Once a domain controller has been established only changes are

replicated.

The replication path that Active Directory data travels through an
enterprise is

called the replication topology.

The change will be replicated to all domain controllers in the
site with in 15

minutes since there can only be three hops.

Note: Each domain controller keeps a list of other known domain
controllers and the last

USN received from each controller.

What is propagation dampening?

This is used to prevent unnecessary replication by preventing
updates from being

sent to the servers that are sent already. To prevent this domain
controller uses up-tovector

numbers.

In windows 2000 SYSVOL share is used to authenticate users. The
sysvol share

includes group policies information which is replicated to all
local domain controllers.

File replication service (FRS) is used to replicate sysvol share. The “Active
Directory

users and computers” tool is used to change the file replication
service schedule.

The DNS IP address and computer name is stored in Active Directory
for Active

Directory integrated DNS zones and replicated to all local domain
controllers. DNS

information is not replicated to domain controllers outside the
domain.

What is the protocol that is used to replicate data?

Normally Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is used to replicate data and is always used for

intrasite replication since it is required to support the FRS. RPC
depends on IP (Internet

Protocol) for transport.

SMTP may be used for replication between sites, where each site is
separate

domain, because SMTP can’t replicate the domain partition.

Clustering: This is supported by only Windows 2000 advanced server and
datacenter

server. Cluster makes several computers appear as one to
applications and clients. It

supports clustering up to 2 nodes. You can cluster 2 to 32
servers. The “cluster service”

must be installed to implement clustering.

Note: FAT16 supports partitions up to 4 GB in Windows 2000.

FAT32 supports partitions up to 32 GB in Windows 2000.

NTFS supports partitions 7 MB to 2 TB.

When you are formatting a partition,

 If you enter the size less than 4 GB, on file
system dialogue box you can see FAT,

FAT32, and NTFS.

 If you enter the between 4 GB and 32 GB, on file
system dialogue box you can

see FAT32, and NTFS.

 If you enter the size more than 32 GB, on file
system dialogue box you can see

only NTFS.

Note: You cannot compress or encrypt folders on FAT partition.

Internet Information Service (IIS)

This is used to host web sites.

First install the IIS service.

How to install IIS?

Start  Settings  Control panel  add/remove programs  Add/remove Windows

components  Select Application server  Select Internet Information
Service  Click

OK

How to open IIS?

Start  Programs  Administrative tools  IIS

Or

Start  Run  type inetmgr.exe  click OK

How to host a website?

Start  Programs  Administrative tools  IIS  Right click on web sites  Select

New  Select website  Click Next  give description of the web site  Enter the IP

address to use web site, enter the port number (by default port
80)  Enter the path for

home directory  Select Read, Run Scripts, and Browse  Click finish

Note: If you want you can change the port number, but generally we don’t
change the

port number. If you have changed the port number, then when typing
URL you have to

type the port number followed by the URL.

Ex: www.google.com:83

If you haven’t typed any thing by default it takes the port number
as 80.

OSI Layers & Functions

Layer Protocol Responsibility

Application FTP, HTTP, Telnet, DNS, TFTP,

POP3, SMTP, News

Provides network services

to the end users

Presentation PCT, TIFF, JPEG, MIDI, MPEG

Session NFS, SQL, RPC, X Windows

Transport TCP, UDP

Network IP, IPX, ICMP, ARP, RIP, OSPF, IGRP,

EIGRP, IPSec

Data-Link PPP, PPTP, L2TP, HDLC, Frame relay

Physical

WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service)

What is WINS and what it does?

WINS stands for Windows Internet Naming Service. It resolves
NETBIOS names

to IP addresses. WINS is used only when you need to access the
NETBIOS resources.

What is NetBIOS?

NetBIOS stands for Network Basic Input Output System. It is naming
interface by which

client can access network resources. It manages data transfer
between nodes on a

network.

What is NETBIOS?

NETBIOS stands for Network Basic Input Output System. It is a
naming interface, it is

interface by which client can connect to access the lower level of
the TCP/IP model to be

able to communicate and access those resources.

We share resources with the NETBIOS interface in Windows NT. This
means that

we are using NetBIOS name to connect the client to the server.

What is the length of NETBIOS name?

A NETBIOS name is 16 characters long. The first fifteen characters
you can use for the

server name, the 16th character is an identifier for what type of service it is
registering.

Note: Computer names are not the only names that are registered as a
NetBIOS names, a

domain name can be registered as NetBIOS name, any service on the
network can be

registered as the NetBIOS names, for example messenger service.

Note: Communication in the network happen IP address to IP address,
ultimately MAC

address to MAC address.

What is there in the network before WINS?

Initially the computers in the network used to communicate with
broadcast. If

there is less number of hosts, then there is no problem. But when
there is more number of

hosts on the network more traffic will be generated. So later they
invented lmhost file

(LAN Manager Host file). By this they configure the lmhost file of
each computer with

the entries of each computer’s IP address and NETBIOS name. So
each computer will

look into its lmhost file to resolve NETBIOS names. But
configuring each computer

lmhost file manually is time consuming and more difficult. Later
then invented

centralized lmhost file. By this they configure lmhost on one
server, and configure each

computer to use that lmhost file. But in this you need to
configure the centralized lmhost

file manually. So Microsoft introduced WINS. By this you need to
install WINS on a

server in the network and configure the computers to use that WINS
server. That’s all,

you need not configure any thing on WINS server. The WINS server
makes an entry

automatically when a client is initialized to use WINS.

Note: A UNIX does not have ability to register into WINS database. But
if a UNIX

server is there in network and you need to resolve it, then for
this you need to configure

manually the entry of that UNIX server in the WINS server.

What is the location of lmhost file (LAN Manager Host file) in
windows 2000?

Winnt/system32/drivers/etc/lmhost.sam

Note: Extension represents that it is a sample file. You can create
lmhost file with out that

extension.

What are Windows 2000 WINS enhancements when compare to the
previous

versions?

  • · Better Management interface
  • · Better clients
  • · Replication can maintain persistent connections.
  • · Supports automatic partner discovery
  • · Integrates with DNS and DHCP
  • · Supports burst mode handling

Note: Windows 2000 doesn’t use WINS for its naming structure. Windows
2000 uses

DNS for its naming structure. The only time that you need WINS in
Windows 2000

environment is when you want resolve NETBIOS based resources such
as NT file server.

In native Windows 2000 environment there is no need to use WINS.

How to install WINS?

Start  Settings  Control Panel  Add/remove programs  Add/remove Windows

components  Select Network Services  Select WINS  Click next  insert the

Windows 2000 CD  click OK  click on finish

This is all you have to do in WINS server. Now go to each and
every client and configure

them to use WINS server.

How to configure a client to use WINS server?

Go to the client computer  Open TCP/IP properties dialogue box  Click on

Advanced button  Click on WINS tab  give the IP address of WINS server  click

OK

How to open WINS?

Start  Programs  Administrative tools  WINS

Or

Start  Run  winsmgmt.msc

How to see records in WINS database?

Open WINS MMC  Right click on Active Registration  Select either find by

owner or find by name  Provide appropriate details  Then you can see records in

WINS database.

How to configure an entry manually in WINS?

Open WINS MMC  Click on Active Registration  Right click on right hand
side 

Select new static entry Enter the NETBIOS name and IP address  Click OK

Note: You can configure as many as WINS servers as you want on the
network. No

matter that which client is using which WINS server, but all WINS
server should be

configured to replicate the data with each other.

How to configure the WINS servers to replicate database with other
WINS servers

on the network?

Open WINS MMC  Right click on Replication partners  Select New replication

partner  Give the IP address of the other WINS server  click OK

Note: By default WINS makes its replications partners as push/pull
replication partners.

Note: Group policies won’t apply for Windows 95/98 clients.

First create a shared folder and put installation files on that
shared folder.

What is the program that is used to create .msi files when .msi
files are not

available?

Wininstall

How to deploy software using Group Policy?

Open the Group Policy Object  Here you have two places to set deployment of

software, one is software settings under computer configuration and another one is

software settings under user configuration  to set a package for either user or

computer right click on appropriate software installation  Select New  Select

package

 Select the .msi file or .zap file of an
application  Select either assign or publish

 Click OK.

Perform the above procedure for each application that you want to
deploy through Group

Policy.

What is the different between deploying applications per computer
or per user

basis?

If you deploy applications per computer that applications will be
deployed to that

computer when the computer has started. If you deploy applications
per user basis then

applications will be deployed when a users logs on.

For computers you can only assign packages.

For users you can assign or publish packages.

What is assign of a application to a computer?

For computer we can only assign, we cannot publish. For computers assign means when

the computer starts that time only those applications will be
installed. For assigning

applications to the computers we have to have .msi files.

What is difference between assign and publish of a package to a
user?

When we assign an application

  • · Icons are placed (in start menu or on desktop), but application
    will be installed on

demand. i.e., when you click on the icon then only application
will be installed.

Or application will be installed when you are trying corresponding
document.

Or go to Add/Remove programs add corresponding package.

When we publish an application

  • · Application will be installed when you are trying corresponding
    document.

Or go to Add/Remove programs add corresponding package.

Note: With assign we install a package in 3 ways where as with publish
we can install in

2 ways.

To assign a package you have to have a .msi file.

To publish a package you have to have either .msi files or .zap files

Note: With assign you will get the more functionality than publish. So when it is

possible for assign, choose assign only.

Note: When ever you have a .msi file then only you can repair or upgrade
that

application. With .zap you cannot do them.

How to install published applications through Add/Remove programs?

Start  Settings  Control panel  Add/Remove programs  Click on Add New

programs  Click on required application  Click on add button.

How to upgrade an existing application in software installation
folder of GPO?

How to apply service packs to an existing application in software
installation folder

of GPO?

How to delete a application from software installation folder of
GPO?

How to set minimum password length through Group Policy?

Open GPO  Click on Computer configuration  Windows settings  Security settings

 Account policies  Password policies  select minimum password length  give

the number  click OK

What do we call the area between two firewalls?

The area between two firewalls is called DMZ (De Militarized Zone)
or Screened subnet.

Note: Depending on the situation, Windows 2000 can be licensed in a
per-seat or perserver

mode. Per-server can be changed to Per-Seat once. Per-seat is a
permanent choice.

When licensing Windows 2000 Server, Client Access Licenses (CALs)
must also be

purchased for the number of clients that will be accessing the
server, regardless of the

desktop operating system that is installed on the clients.

Note: For Disk Management in Windows 2003 you can use command line tool

diskpart.exe (New feature in Windows 2003). For more details type diskpart.exe
at

command prompt and then type “?”.

Note: ForeignSecurityPrincipals Container for security
principals

from trusted external domains. Administrators should not manually
change

the contents of this container.

Note: By default Search doesn’t display hidden files. i.e., you are
searching for a file

which has hidden attribute, even though it is exists your search doesn’t display
it.

Note: By default search doesn’t displays hidden files. But if you want
to search hidden

files also you can search by modifying the following key in
registry.

Mycomputer\HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CUR

RENTVERSION\EXPLORER\

Here you can search hidden attribute. Click on this and change value from 0 to 1.

File and folder Attributes:

Write Users can copy and paste new files and folders
and users can change folder

attributes. However, users cannot open or browse the folder unless
you grant the Read

permission.

Read  Users can see the names of files and subfolders
in a folder and view folder

attributes, ownership, and permissions. Users can open and view
files, but they cannot

change files or add new files.

List Folder Contents Users can see the names of files and subfolders
in the folder.

However, users cannot open files to view their contents.

Read & Execute  Users have the same rights as those assigned
through the Read

permission, as well as the ability to traverse folders. Traverse
folders rights allow a user

to reach files and folders located in subdirectories, even if the
user does not have

permission to access portions of the directory path.

What is the work FRS (File Replication Service?

It is used to replicate both the contents of the SYSVOL share
between domain controllers

and the contents of Distributed File System (DFS) replicas.

What are the contents of SYSVOL folder?

SYSVOL includes the actual SYSVOL file share, the NETLOGON file
share, all

Windows 9x and Windows NT System Policies, and all Win2K and later
Group Policy

Objects (GPOs).

SYSVOL also contains all user and computer logon and logoff (and
startup and

shutdown) scripts. By default, SYSVOL is stored in
C:\Windows\Sysvol, exists on all

domain controllers, and should be identical on each domain
controller in a domain.

What is Distinguished Name (DN)?

The DN identifies the domain that holds the object, as well as it
provides complete path

through the container hierarchy by which the object is reached. A
typical DN is as

follows. CN=someone, CN=Users, DC=Microsoft, DC=com.

What is Relatively Distinguished Name (RDN)?

The RDN is part of the name that is an attribute of the object it
self. In the above example

The RDN of the someone user object is “CN=someone”. The RDN of the parent object is

“CN=Users”.

Note: The replication happen for every 5 minutes. Because if replication
happen

immediately for each modification there will more traffic, so it
replicates modifications

collectively that are done during default interval.

How do determine the Operating system type that you are working
on?

Right click on My computer  Select properties  on general tab you can see operating

system type and version.

ADSI edit:

When you open ADSI edit you can see 3 database partitions, i.e., domain partition,

configuration partition, and schema partition. Under this you can see CN, and

Distinguished names of different objects.

How to cluster two computers?

First go to one of the computer that is going to cluster.

Start  Programs  Administrative tools  Cluster administrator  You will get open

connection to cluster dialogue box (if you wont get this dialogue box, then click on
file

 click on open connection)  Select Create new cluster  Go through the wizard.

Then go to the 2nd computer

Start  Programs  Administrative tools  Cluster administrator  You will get open

connection to cluster dialogue box (if you wont get this dialogue box, then click on
file

 click on open connection)  Select Add a node to the
cluster
 Go through the

wizard.

Note: In 2003 Cluster administrator installed by default.

In 2000 Cluster administrator installed when Cluster service
component is

installed.

How to install cluster service component?

Start  Settings  Control panel  Add/remove programs  Add/remove windows

components  Select Cluster services  Click ok

Note: By using cluster Administrator you can configure, control, manage
and monitor

clusters.

Note: Clustering is only supported with Windows Server 2003, Enterprise
Edition and

Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition, Windows 2000 Advanced
server and Data

center server.

A cluster consists of at least two connected physical computers,
or nodes, and a

shared storage device, such as RAID-5 disk set channel. The
cluster provides a redundant

hardware solution. Because services can run on one or both of
the nodes in the cluster,

users can connect to either node in the same way that they would
connect to a stand-alone

server; thereby providing greater user availability.

What is failover?

Cluster service monitors the services on all nodes. If a node
fails, Cluster service

restarts or moves the services on the failed node to a
functional node. This process is

called failover. The ability to use
multiple servers at all times reduces system costs while

increasing reliability, because you do not have to dedicate
servers for disaster recovery.

When the failed node is restored, the resources may be returned
to the original node. This

process is called failback Failover and failback in a cluster can be performed manually by

the people who maintain the cluster or can occur automatically
when there is an

unplanned hardware or application failure.

What is active/active clustering and active/passive clustering?

Active/active clustering describes clustering when both members
of the cluster are

online and able to accept user service requests. This is
different from active/passive

clustering where only one member of a cluster provides service
to users at a time.

Active/passive is the preferred recommended cluster
configuration.

In an active/passive cluster, the cluster includes at least one passive node and one

or more active nodes. A node is active
if it runs an instance of an Exchange virtual server

(EVS). A node is passive if it does not run an instance of EVS
(Exchange Virtual Server)

or any other application. A passive node is ready to take over
the tasks of an active node

whenever a failover occurs on any active node. Whether a node is
active or passive may

change over the lifetime of a node. After a failover, the
passive node which now runs the

failed-over EVS is an active node and the original node became a
passive node. In an

active/passive cluster, the active node is actively handling
requests while the passive node

is standing by waiting for another node to fail.

Similar to active/passive clustering, in active/active
clustering, when one node

fails or is taken offline, the other node in the cluster takes
over for the failed node.

However, because the failover causes the other node to take on
additional processing

operations, the overall performance of your Exchange cluster may
be reduced.

Note: Microsoft recommends active/passive cluster configurations
over active/active

configurations. Active/active clusters have more limitations
than active/passive clusters.

Active/active clusters have a limit of 1,900 concurrent
connections to a node hosting

EVSs, and they are only supported on two nodes.

Note: Windows 2000 Advanced server supports 2 nodes clustering.

Windows 2000 Data center server supports 4 nodes clustering.

Windows 2003 Enterprise and Data center supports 8 nodes
clustering.

Features of Active Directory:

Table 1. Features Enabled or
Enhanced by Active Directory

Feature Enabled by Active

Directory

Enhanced by

Active Directory

IntelliMirror

Remote OS Installation Services (RIS)

Delegation of Administration

Multimaster Replication

Global Catalog

Active Directory Sites

Kerberos Authentication

Domain Trusts

Quality of Service (QOS)

File Replication Service (FRS)

Group Policy

Security Groups

Domain Name System (DNS)

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

Routing and Remote Access Service

Virtual Private Network (VPN)

IP Security (IP sec)

Telephony API (TAPI)

File Services

Distributed File System (DFS)

Encrypting File System (EFS)

Print Services

Internet Information Services (IIS)

Smart Cards

Terminal Services

Microsoft Certificate Server

Services for NetWare

Search Assistant

Message Queuing Services

Exchange 2000

Kerberos Authentication

  • · Kerberos is the Internet standard security protocol for
    handling authentication of users or

system identity.

  • · Kerberos allows UNIX clients and servers to have Active
    Directory accounts and obtain

authentication from a domain controller.

  • · Services can impersonate users allowing middle-tier
    service to authenticate to a back-end

data server on behalf of the user.

Scripts

Scripts are used to run commands automatically when a user
logging on. Generally in

small organizations scripts are used to map drives automatically.

How to create a Script?

Open note pad.

Write the script.

Save it as *.bat file in net logon folder.

Then go to the user properties for whom you want to run that
particular script  Click on

profile  type the file name in the logon script box. (Just type the file
name, no need to

give path of the file)  Click OK.

Example of a script for mapping drives.

Open a note pad file. Type the following information (with in
the lines) as it is.

Net use p: \\liveserver\common

Net use x: \\liveserver\pdata

Save it as *.bat in net logon folder.

Note: The contents of a script file are nothing but command those we
use at command

prompt. A user can run these commands when he logs on and can
get same functionality.

But running all these commands at each log on will be difficult.
So to automatically run

all these commands at command prompt when ever a user logs on,
we use scripts.

Note: The location of the net logon folder is My network places  Entire Network 

Microsoft Windows Network  Click on Domain name  Click on Server name 

Select NET LOGON folder.

Note: Actually NET LOGON is not a folder but it is share name of the folder

%systemroot%\sysvol\sysvol\domainname.com\scripts. So there is no folder
called NET

LOGON in the server but it is share name scripts folder.

So when you save a script file it will be saved in the Script folder

Note: You have store scripts in Scripts folder. So when Sysvol is replicated to all
Domain

controllers in the domain these scripts are also replicated.

Note: In Sysvol folder policies and Scripts are stored in respective sub
folders.

Suppose you have deleted Active Directory Users and Computers from

Administrative tools, how to restore it?

Start  Programs  Right click on Administrative tools
 Select All Users  Right

click in the window  drag down to New  Select short cut  click on Browse  My

computer  C:\Windows\System32  Select dsa.msc  Click OK  Give the name as

Active Directory Users and Computers  Click OK.

Note: You can add all snap ins in Administrative tools like this only.

Note: The same procedure applied for any thing to place in start menu,
just right click on

the parent folder select open all users, and create a short cut there, that’s all.

How to dismount a volume through command line?

The command to dismount a volume through command prompt is

fsutil volume dismount <volume pathname>”

How can I quickly find all the listening or open ports on my
computer?

Usually, if you want to see all the used and listening ports on
your computer, you’d use

the NETSTAT command.

Open Command Prompt and type: C:\WINDOWS>netstat -an |find /i
“listening”

This command displays all listening ports.

C:\netstat -an |find /i “listening” > c:\openports.txt

This command redirects the output to a file openport.txt in C
drive.

C:\netstat -an |find /i “listening” > c:\openports.txt

This command is used to see what ports your computer actually
communicates with.

Note: Suppose you have some roles on a domain controller. With out
transferring the

roles to other domain controller you have demoted the domain
controller to a member

server by the command dcpromo. Then what will happen?

When you demote a domain controller which has roles by the
command dcpromo, during

the demotion the roles will be transferred to the nearest domain
controller.

What is the location of device manager?

Right click on My computer  drag down to properties  Click on hardware tab 

Click on device manager

Or

Start  programs  Administrative tools  computer management  device manager

Or

Start  Run  type compmgmt.msc

Where do you get windows 2000 professional resource kit?

You get Windows 2000 professional resource kit along with
Microsoft technet

subscription.

Note: If you want to know complete information about system
hardware, software

and everything regarding system use the command winmsd.exe.

Note: Disk quotas cannot be applied to groups in Windows 2000/2003.

You can apply disk quotas to groups in Unix.

Windows Server 2003

When you first logon to a new installation of W2k3 the default
desktop is blank apart

from the Recycle bin. All the rest of the icons are moved to the start menu.

You can readjust the desktop to the old Windows 2000 style by
the following way.

Right click on Taskbar  Select Properties  Click on Start tab  Select Classic

Right click on Start menu  Select Properties  Select Classic Start menu

What is Manage your Server Wizard?

When you first logon to the Windows 2003 you will get Manage Your Server
Wizard.

A host of configuration and management tools have been brought
together in the Manage

Your Server Wizard. It also includes the ability to configure a
profile – called a server

role. There are 11 roles. (What are they?)

The roles are

  • · File server
  • · Print server
  • · Application server (IIS, ASP.NET)
  • · Mail Server (POP3, SMTP)
  • · Terminal Server
  • · Remote Access/ VPN server
  • · Domain Controller (Active Directory)
  • · DNS Server
  • · DHCP server
  • · Streaming Media Server
  • · WINS server

There is a role called “application server” but this provides
IIS, ASP.NET and Web

development functionality only and should only be selected if
these are required.

How to add a role to a server?

Click on start menu  Choose Manage Your Server  Click on Add or Remove
Role

Icon  Highlight the role you wish to Add  Click Next

Note: When adding a role, depending upon your choice, you may be
prompted to provide

additional information to configure the role. You may be also
prompted for the W2K3 CD

if additional files are required.

You can remove a role from the server using this Wizard.

Click on start menu  Choose Manage Your Server  Click on Add or Remove
Role

Icon  Highlight the role you wish to Add  Click Next

By this if a role has not been added, it can be added. If it has
already been added, you can

remove it.

Note: If the role you want to add or remove is not listed in Manage
Your server Wizard,

go to Add/Remove Programs.

Note: You can change the computer name by using Manage Your server
Wizard
, you

can also add it to a Workgroup or Domain.

Remote Administration (formerly Terminal Services in
Administration Mode)

Remote Administration is now installed by default, you do not
need to install Terminal

Services separately as this is now solely for user Terminal
Sessions. It will need to be

enabled and access granted to the appropriate users.

Administrator has access by default but you must have a password
set or otherwise you

will not be able to logon.

Remote Administation can be configured by

Right Click on My computer  Select properties  click on Remote tab

Adding/Removing Users to Remote Administration

Click on the Select Remote user button  click on Add/Remove
button  If adding

either enter the full user name (Domain\username) or select Advanced
and search for the

user locally or in a domain.

Volume Shadow copy (Currently Not Recommended)

Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) was specifically designed to
provide point – in –

time snapshots of volumes and eliminated problems with backups
of open files. It can

also provide recovery of files for end users or Administrators
without having to do a

restore from backup.

The shadow copy process works on a schedule and is not recommended
to be done more

than once per hour. The default schedule is twice a day.

In order for the copy to work you will need to set aside a
certain amount of space on the

same or another volume.

Users can access the previous versions of the files through
Explorer. If they have

Windows 2000 then they will require the installation of a
software to enable the Explorer

options.

Note: In Windows 2003 you can add upto 32 servers can work in a NLB.

In Windows 2003 you can add upto 8 server to participate in a
cluster.

Windows System Resource Manager (WSRM)

Microsoft Windows System Resource Manager (WSRM) provides
resource management

and enables the allocation of resources, including processor and
memory resources,

among multiple applications. It has uses in enabling
consolidaion of applications but

ensuring they are given the resources they require to run on a
single server.

Note: WSRM only runs on Windows server 2003 Enterprise and Datacenter
Editions.

WSRM allows administrators to control CPU and memory resource
allocation to

applications, services, and processors. This feature can be used
to manage multiple

applications on a single computer or multiple users on a
computer that runs Microsoft

Terminal Services. The WSRM architecture also allows
administrators to manage

resources on multiple systems. WSRM provides GUI as well as
command line interfaces

for resource management.

What is the location of the event log files in the system?

The location of event viewer log files is %systemroot%\system32\config\
.
Here all

event log files i.e., application log, security log, system log
etc will be stored.

What are the switches that are available with repadmin?

Repadmin /showrepl  Shows replication status

Repadmin /failcache  Show recent failed cached replication events.

Repadmin /syncall  Synchronizes replication to all domain
controllers in entire

forest. If you want to synchronize to only one domain controller
type the FQDN of the

domain controller followed by the repadmin /syncall.

Nltest 

Replmon 

Adsiedit.msc 

How to associate a existing subnet object with a site?

Associating existing subnet with a site under the following
conditions.

 When you are removing the site to which the
subnet was associated.

 When you have temporarily associated the subnet
with a different site and want

to associate it with its permanent site.

Required credentials : Enterprise Admins

To associate an existing subnet object with a site

Start  Programs  Administrative tools  Active Directory Sites and
Services 

Click on sites  Click on subnet container  Right click on the subnet with which you

want to associate the site and click on properties  On the site box click the site with

which you want to associate the subnet, click ok.

How to change the delay of initial Notification of an Intrasite
Replication partner?

Or

How to change the default replication interval between domain
controller with in a

site?

The default Replication interval between the Domain controllers
with in a site is 5

minutes (300 seconds). To change the interval follow the below
steps

Log in as Domain Administrator  Start  Run  Regedt32.exe  Navigate to

HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlset\services\NTDS\  Click on Parameters

Double click on Replication notify pause after modify (secs)  In the base box, click

decimal  In the value data box, type the number of seconds for the delayClick OK

How to change the Garbage Collection Period?

The Garbage collection period determines how often expired
tombstones are removed

from the directory database. This period is governed by an
attribute value on the

Directory services object in the configuration container. The
default value is 12 (hours).

Decrease the period to perform garbage collection more frequently.
Increase the period to

perform garbage collection less frequently.

Log in Enterprise Admin  Start  Programs  Support tools  Tools  ADSI Edit

 Expand Configuration container  Expand CN= Configuration  Expand CN =

Services  Expand CN =Windows NT  Right Click CN=Directory Service  click

on properties  Click Garbagecollperiod  click Set  Click OK

How to change the Priority for DNS SRV Records in the Registry?

To prevent Clients from sending all requests to a single domain
controller, the domain

controllers are assigned a priority value. Client always send
requests to the domain

controller that has the lowest priority value. If more than one
domain controller has the

same value, The clients randomly choose from the group of domain
controllers with the

same value. If no domain controllers with the lowest priority
value are available, then the

clients send requests to the domain controller with the next
highest priority. A domain

Controller’s priority value is stored in registry. When the domain
controller starts, the Net

Logon service registers domain controller, the priority value is
registered with the rest of

its DNS information. When a client uses DNS to discover a domain
controller, the

priority for a given domain controller is returned to the client
with the rest of the DNS

information. The client uses the priority values to help determine
to which domain

controller to send requests.

The value is stored in the LdapSrvPriority registry entry. The default value is 0 and it

can be range from 0 through 65535.

Note: A lower value entered for LdapSrvPriority indicates a higher
priority. A domain

controller with an LdapSrvPriority setting of 100 has a lower priority than a domain

controller with a setting of 10. Therefore, client attempts to use
the domain controller

with the setting of 100 first.

To change priority for DNS SRV records in the registry

Log on as Domain Admin  Start  Run  Regedit  HKLM\SYSTEM|

CurrentControlSet\Services\Netlogon\Parameters  Click Edit  Click New  Click

DWORD value  For the New value name, type LdapSrvPriority  Click Enter 

Double click the value name that just you typed to open the Edit DWORD Value

dialogue box  Enter a value from 0 through 65535. The default
value is 0  Choose

Decimal as the Base option  Click OK  Close the Registry editor.

How to change the Weight for DNS Records in the Registry?

To increase client requests sent to other domain controllers
relative to a particular domain

controller, adjust the weight of the particular domain controller
to a lower value than the

others. All domain controllers starts with a default weight
setting of 100 and can be

configured for any value from 0 through 65535, with a data type of
decimal. When you

adjust the weight, consider it as a ratio of the weight of this
domain controller to the

weight of the other domain controllers. Because the default for
the other domain

controller is 100, the number you enter for weight is divided by
100 to establish the ratio.

For example, if you specify a weight of 60, the ratio to the other
domain controller is

60/100. The reduces to 3/5, so you can expect clients to be
referred to other domain

controller 5 times for every 3 times they get referred to the
domain controller you are

adjusting.

To change weight for DNS SRV records in the registry

Log on As domain Admin  Start  Run  regedit 

HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Netlogon\Parameters  Click edit

Click New  Click DWORD Value  For the new value name, type LdapSrvWeight

Click Enter  Double click on the value name you just typed to
open the Edit

DWORD Value dialogue box  Enter a Value from 0 through 65535, the default
value

is 100.  Choose Decimal as the Base option  Click OK  Close Registry editor.

How to check Directory Database Integrity?

Prior to performing any other troubleshooting procedures relative
to a suspected database

problem, or immediately following offline defragmentation, perform
a database integrity

check.

Restart the domain controller in Directory Services Restore Mode  Open command

prompt  Type Ntdsutil, press enter  Type files, press Enter  type integrity, press

enter.

Note the status that is reported when the integrity check is
completed.

 If the integrity check completes successfully,
type q and press Enter to return to

the ntdsutil prompt. Then go for semantic database analysis.

 If the integrity check reports errors, perform
directory database recovery.

Semantic Database Checkup:

At ntdsutil prompt type Semantic database analysis, press enter  At the Semantic

checker: prompt type verbose on, and then press Enter  at the semantic checker:

prompt type Go and then press enter

Complete the Database Integrity check as follows:

 If no errors are detected in the status at the
end of the procedure, type quit again

to close Ntdsutil.exe, and then restart in normal mode.

 If Symantic Database analysis reports recoverable errors, then perform

semantic database analysis with fixup. If errors are not
recoverable, then either

restore the domain controller from backup or rebuild the domain
controller.

How to do metadata clean up?

If you give the new domain controller the same name as the failed
computer, then you

need perform only the first procedure to clean up metadata, which
removes the NTDS

settings object of the failed domain controller. If you will give
the new domain controller

a different name, then you need to perform all three procedures.:
Clean up metadata,

remove failed server object from the site and remove the computer
object from the

domain controller container.

Log on as Enterprise admin  Open command prompt  Type ntdsutil  Type

metadata cleanup  At the metadata cleanup: prompt type connect to the server

servername, Where servername is the name of the domain controller (any functional

domain controller in the same domain) from which you plan to clean
up the metadata of

the failed domain controller, press Enter  Type quit and press Enter to return
to the

metadata cleanup: prompt.  Type Select operation target and press Enter  Type List

domains and press Enter, this list the all domains in the forest with a
number associated

with each.  Type select domain number, where number is the number corresponding
to

the domain in which he failed server was located, press Enter  Type list sites, press

enter  Type select site number, where number is the number of the site
in which the

domain controller was a member, press enter  Type list servers in site press Enter 

Type Select server number, and then press Enter where number refers to the domain

controller to be removed.  Type quit press Enter, the metadata cleanup menu is

displayed.  Type remove selected server press Enter.

At this point, Active Directory confirms that the domain
controller was removed

successfully. If you receive an error that the object could not be
found, Active Directory

might have already removed from the domain controller.

Type quit, and press Enter until you return to the command prompt.

If a new domain controller receives a different name than the
failed domain controller,

perform the following additional steps.

Note: Do not perform the additional steps if the computer will have the
same name as the

failed computer,. Ensure that the hardware failure was not the
cause of the problem. If the

faulty hardware is not changed, then restoring through
reinstallation might not help.

To remove the failed server object from the sites

In the Active Directory sites and services, Expand the appropriate
site  Delete the

server object associated with the failed domain controller.

To remove the failed server object from the domain controllers
container

In Active Directory users and computers, expand the domain
controllers container 

Delete the computer object associated with the failed domain
controller.

How to view the list of preferred list of Bridgehead servers?

To see all servers that have been selected as preferred bridgehead
servers in a forest, you

can view the bridgeheadserverlistBL
attribute on the IP
container object.

Log in Domain Admin  Open ADSI edit  Expand Configuration container

Expand CN=Configuration,DC=ForestRootDomainName, CN=Sites, and CN=Inter-

Site Trasports.  Right Click on CN=IP and then click properties  In the Select a

property to view box, click bridgeheadServerListBL.

The Values box displays the distinguished name for each server object that is
currently

selected as a preferred bridgehead server in the forest. If the
value is <not set>, no

preferred bridgehead servers are currently selected.

How to view replication metadata of an object?

Replication metadata identifies the history of attributes that
have been replicated for a

specified object. Use this procedure to identify time, dates, and
Update Sequence

Numbers (USNs) of attribute replications, as well as the domain
controller on which

replication originated.

To view replication metadata of an object

Log in as Domain Admin  Open command prompt and type the following
command

press enter.

Repadmin /showmeta distinguishedName serverName

/u:DomainName\Username /pw:*

Where:

Distinguisedname is the LDAP distinguished name of an object that exists on

ServerName.

Domain Name is the domain of ServerName

Username is the name of an administrative account in that domain.

Note: If you are logged on as an administrator in the domain of the
destination domain

controller, omit the /u: and /pw: switches.

How to verify the Existence of the Operations Master?

Or

How do you verify whether Operations Masters working properly or
not?

This test verifies that the operations masters are located and that
they are online and

responding.

Dcdiag /s:domaincontroller /test:knowsofroleholders

Dcdiag /s:domaincontroller /test:fsmocheck

How to verify that Windows Time Service is Synchronizing Time?

To verify use the following commands.

Net stop w32time

W32tm –once –test

Net start w32time

How to verify Successful Replication to a Domain Controller?

Use Repadmin.exe to verify success of Replication to a specific
domain controller. Run

the /showreps command on the domain controller that receives replication (the

destination domain controller). In the output under INBOUND
NEIGHBORS,

Repadmin.exe shows the LDAP distinguished name of each directory
partition for which

inbound directory replication has been attempted, the site and
name of the source domain

controller, and whether it succeeded or not, as follows.

 Last attempt @ YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM.SS was
successful.

 Last attempt @ [Never} was successful.

To verify successful replication to a domain controller

Use the following command

Repadmin /showreps ServerName /u:domainName\Username /pw:*

Where servername is the name of the destination domain controller.

How to verify Replication is Functioning?

To check if replication is working, use the following command

Dcdiag /test:replications

To verify that the proper permissions are set for replication, use
the following command.

Dcdiag /test:netlogons

How to verify Network connectivity?

To verify network connectivity first ping to the self IP address,
and then ping to the

default gateway, and then ping to the remote computer.

To verify that the routers on the way to the destination are
functioning correctly. Use the

pathping command.

Pathping <IP address>

What is the switch that is used to restart in Directory service
Restore mode in

boot.ini file?

Use the following switch along with the path.

/safeboot:dsrepair (I hope this switch is available in Windows 2003 only)

Suppose ipconfig /registerdns command is not working. What could
be the

problem?

The dhcp client service might be stopped. So go to the services.msc and enable the
dhcp

client service.

What are the functional levels we have in Windows 2003?

There are 2 types of functional levels in Windows 2003.

 Forest Functional Level

 Domain Functional Level

What is forest functional level in Windows 2003?

The functional level of Active Directory forest that has one or
more domain controllers

running Windows server 2003. The functional level of a forest can
be raised to enable

new Active Directory features that will apply to every domain
controller in the forest.

There are 3 forest functional level.

 Windows 2000 (Supports NT, 2000, 2003 domain
controllers)

 Windows server 2003 interim (supports only NT,
2003 domain controllers)

 Windows server 2003 (Supports only 2003 family
domain controllers)

Note: When you raise the functional level to windows server 2003
interim or windows

server 2003 you will get advanced forest wide Active Directory
features.

What is domain functional level in Windows 2003?

The functional level of Active Directory domain that has one or
more domain controllers

running Windows server 2003. The functional level of a domain can
be raised to enable

new Active Directory features that will apply to that domain only.
There are 4 domain

functional level.

 Windows 2000 mixed (supports NT, 2000, 2003
domain controllers)

 Windows 2000 native (supports 2000, 2003 domain
controllers only)

 Windows server 2003 interim (supports NT, 2003
domain controllers only)

 Windows server 2003 (Supports only 2003 domain controllers)

Note: When you raise the domain functional level you will get additional
features.

Note: By default domain operates at the Windows 2000 mixed mode
functional level.

How to raise forest functional level in Windows 2003?

Start  Programs  Administrative tools  Active Directory Domains
and Trusts 

Right click on the Active Directory Domains and Trusts  Select Raise Forest

functional level  Select the required forest functional level  click OK

Note: To perform this you must be member of Domain Admin group (in the forest root

domain) or the Enterprise admin group.

How to raise domain functional level in Windows 2003?

Start  Programs  Administrative tools  Active Directory Users and
computes 

Right click on the domain name  Select Raise domain functional level  Select the

appropriate domain level  click OK

Note: If the functional level is windows server 2003 then you will get
all the features that

are available with 2003. When Windows NT or Windows 2000 domain
controllers are

included in your domain or forest with domain controller running
Windows server 2003,

Active Directory features are limited.

Note: Once if you raise the domain or forest functional level you cannot
revert back.

Advantages of different functional levels:

When ever you are in Windows 2000 mixed mode the advantage is you can use

Windows NT, 2000, 2003 domain controllers. The limitations are

 you cannot create universal groups

 You cannot nest groups

 You cannot convert groups (i.e., conversion
between security groups and

distribution groups)

 some additional dial in features will be
disabled

 you cannot rename the domain controller.

 SID history disabled.

About cable modems

Unlike traditional modems, which
convert analog and digital signals to

exchange data over a telephone
line, cable modems use Internet

protocol to transmit data over a
cable television line.

About digital subscriber lines

Digital subscriber lines, such as
ADSL or DSL, are high-speed Internet

connections offered by an Internet
service provider (ISP). You operate

as though you are on a network and
are assigned an IP address.

About ISDN lines

Integrated Services Digital Networks
(ISDN) are digital telephone

services that can transmit digital
and voice data at much faster speeds

than traditional modems.

What is Automated System Recovery?

Windows server 2003 has some tools to assist the administrator in
safeguarding the

system against failure. One such tools is the Automated System
Recovery (ASR) set that

should be created after installing the server, after major changes
are made and also

schedule at a regular interval.

How to create an ASR set?

Logon as administrator or backup operator  start  Run  ntbackup.exe  Select

Automated System Recovery

How to Recovering from a system failure with the ASR set?

Insert the original operating system Installation CD into CD drive
 Restart your

computer  boot from CD  Press F6 when prompted for Automated System
Recovery

 Insert the Floppy disks of ASR

How to redirect output of a command to a text file from command
prompt?

To redirect output of a command to a text file use the following
syntax,

Commandname > filename.txt

What is the command that is used to display and modify security
permissions of a

folder?

The command is xcacls.exe.

What is teaming?

Teaming is the concept of combing two or more LAN cards for more
speed. For n

number of LAN cards there will be only one IP address. By teaming
you can increase

speed. For example if you are teaming 5 LAN cards of 100 MBPS now
your network

speed is 500 MBPS.

Note: You can assign one IP address to n number of LAN cards and at the same you can

assign n number of IP addresses to
LAN card.

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